ASP.NET Core Experienced Interview Questions and Answers

ASP.NET Core Experienced Interview Questions and Answers

In this article, I will discuss the most frequently asked Top 50 ASP.NET Core Experienced Interview Questions and Answers. Please read our previous article discussing Top 50 ASP.NET Core Intermediate Interview Questions and Answers. Here’s a comprehensive list of ASP.NET Core Experienced Interview Questions and Answers.

What is middleware?

Middleware in the context of web applications, particularly with frameworks like ASP.NET Core, is software that’s assembled into an application pipeline to handle requests and responses. Each component in the middleware chain is responsible for invoking the next component in the sequence or short-circuiting the chain if necessary. Middleware components can perform a variety of tasks, such as authentication, routing, logging, and response compression.

How do you create custom middleware?

To create custom middleware in ASP.NET Core, you define a class with an Invoke or InvokeAsync method that takes HttpContext as a parameter and returns a Task. The class may also include a constructor that accepts any required dependencies. This custom middleware is then registered in the application’s request pipeline, typically in the Configure method of the Startup class, using the UseMiddleware<TMiddleware> extension method.

What are some common use cases for middleware?

Common use cases for middleware include:

  • Authentication: Identifying the user making a request.
  • Authorization: Determining if the identified user has permission to access a resource.
  • Logging and Monitoring: Recording requests and responses for diagnostics.
  • Error Handling: Catching and processing exceptions.
  • Caching: Storing responses to reduce the load on the server.
  • Localization: Adjusting responses based on the user’s locale.
What is dependency injection?

Dependency Injection (DI) is a design pattern used to achieve Inversion of Control (IoC) between classes and their dependencies. It allows for decoupling of the construction of a class’s dependencies from its behavior, making the system more modular, easier to test, and more configurable.

How does ASP.NET Core utilize Dependency Injection?

ASP.NET Core has built-in support for dependency injection. It provides a DI container that is configured at application startup, where services (dependencies) are registered. These services can then be injected into controllers, middleware, and other components throughout the application, promoting loose coupling and testability.

How do you Register Services in ASP.NET Core?

Services are registered using the ConfigureServices method of the Startup class in ASP.NET Core. You use the provided IServiceCollection to add services to the application. There are several methods for registering services, including AddSingleton, AddScoped, and AddTransient, depending on the desired lifetime of the service instances.

Explain the differences between transient, scoped, and singleton services.
  • Transient: A new instance of the service is created each time it is requested from the service container.
  • Scoped: A new instance of the service is created once per request within the scope. It is the same within a request but different across different requests.
  • Singleton: A single instance of the service is created and shared throughout the application’s lifetime.
How do you implement authentication in ASP.NET Core?

Authentication in ASP.NET Core is implemented using the Authentication middleware. You configure it in the Startup class, specifying the authentication scheme(s) your application uses. ASP.NET Core supports various authentication mechanisms, such as cookies, JWT bearer tokens, and external authentication providers like Google, Facebook, etc. You set up these schemes in the ConfigureServices method and then apply them to your application using attributes or policies.

Explain the differences between JWT, OAuth, and OpenID Connect.
  • JWT (JSON Web Token): A compact, URL-safe means of representing claims to be transferred between two parties. It’s a token format used in authentication and information exchange.
  • OAuth: An authorization framework that enables a third-party application to obtain limited access to an HTTP service. It’s about delegation of authorization.
  • OpenID Connect: A simple identity layer on top of OAuth 2.0, which allows clients to verify the identity of the end-user and to obtain basic profile information in an interoperable and REST-like manner.
How do you configure authorization policies?

Authorization policies in ASP.NET Core are configured using the ConfigureServices method of the Startup class by using the AddAuthorization method. You can define policies that incorporate various requirements, such as user roles, claims, or custom requirements. These policies are then applied to controllers or actions within your application through attributes (like [Authorize]) or by using the policy name directly if more complex rules are needed.

What is the role of ASP.NET Core Identity in authentication and authorization?

ASP.NET Core Identity is a membership system that adds login functionality to ASP.NET Core applications. It supports authentication (verifying who a user is) and authorization (determining what resources a user is allowed to access). ASP.NET Core Identity allows for easily integrating user profiles and managing user accounts, passwords, roles, and security tokens.

What is Entity Framework Core?

Entity Framework Core (EF Core) is an open-source, lightweight, extensible, and cross-platform version of Entity Framework, Microsoft’s Object Relational Mapper (ORM) for .NET. It enables developers to work with a database using .NET objects, eliminating the need for most of the data-access code that developers usually need to write.

How do you configure EF Core in ASP.NET Core Projects?

To configure EF Core in an ASP.NET Core project, you typically:

  • Install the necessary NuGet packages for EF Core and the database provider you’re using (e.g., Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.SqlServer for SQL Server).
  • Define your DbContext and entity classes to represent your database schema.
  • Register the DbContext with the dependency injection container in the Startup.cs file using the services.AddDbContext method.
  • Configure the connection string in the appsettings.json file and read it in Startup.cs to set up the database connection.
Explain the differences between Code First and Database First approaches.
  • Code First: Developers write C# classes to define the database model; then, EF Core migrations are used to generate the database schema based on these classes. It’s suitable for new projects where the database schema is developed alongside the application.
  • Database First: Begins with an existing database, and EF Core scaffolding is used to generate the entity classes and DbContext based on the schema of the existing database. It’s suitable for projects that need to work with an existing database.
How do you handle database migrations?

Database migrations in EF Core are handled through the dotnet ef migrations command-line tool or the Package Manager Console in Visual Studio. To handle migrations, you typically:

  • Create a migration using the Add-Migration command, providing a name for the migration.
  • Apply the migration to the database using the Update-Database command, which updates the database schema to match the current model by applying the necessary changes.
How do you secure ASP.NET Core Applications?

Securing ASP.NET Core applications involves multiple strategies, including:

  • Implementing authentication and authorization (e.g., using ASP.NET Core Identity).
  • Using HTTPS to encrypt data in transit.
  • Implementing data protection to secure sensitive data.
  • Using anti-forgery tokens to prevent Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) attacks.
  • Validating and sanitizing input to prevent Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) attacks.
Explain Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) and Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) attacks and how to mitigate them.
  • XSS: An attacker injects malicious scripts into content that is then served to other users. Mitigation includes validating and encoding user input and using Content Security Policy (CSP) headers.
  • CSRF: An attacker tricks a user’s browser into executing unauthorized actions on a web application in which they’re authenticated. Mitigation involves using anti-forgery tokens that validate that the requests to the server are legitimate and originated from the site itself.
What are some best practices for securing APIs?

Best practices for securing APIs include:

  • Implementing authentication and authorization, often using tokens (such as JWT).
  • Using HTTPS to secure data in transit.
  • Validating and sanitizing input to prevent injection attacks.
  • Limiting request rates to prevent abuse.
  • Applying the principle of least privilege to API access.
How do you handle sensitive data in ASP.NET Core applications?

Handling sensitive data securely involves:

  • Encrypting sensitive data at rest and in transit (using HTTPS).
  • Using ASP.NET Core’s Data Protection API to encrypt data in your application.
  • Ensuring that sensitive data is not exposed in logs or error messages.
  • Implementing proper access controls to limit who can access sensitive data.
How do you deploy ASP.NET Core applications?

Deploying ASP.NET Core applications can be done in several ways, including:

  • To a web server, like IIS, using Web Deploy or FTP.
  • To cloud services, like Azure App Service, directly from Visual Studio or using CI/CD pipelines.
  • Using containers, deploying as a Docker container to a container orchestration service like Kubernetes.
  • Creating self-contained deployments (SCD) or framework-dependent deployments (FDD) for hosting on any platform that supports .NET.
What are some deployment options available for ASP.NET Core?
  • IIS (Internet Information Services): A flexible, secure, and manageable Web server for hosting anything on the Web.
  • Kestrel: A cross-platform web server for ASP.NET Core.
  • Docker Containers: Package applications with all of their dependencies and services.
  • Cloud Services: Azure App Service, AWS Elastic Beanstalk, and Google Cloud App Engine are popular cloud hosting options.
  • Linux or Windows Virtual Machines: For full control over the hosting environment.
Explain the role of Docker and Kubernetes in ASP.NET Core deployment.
  • Docker: Provides a way to package ASP.NET Core applications with all their dependencies into containers, ensuring consistency across environments and simplifying deployment.
  • Kubernetes: An orchestration tool for Docker containers, managing aspects like scaling, load balancing, and self-healing of containers in cluster environments, facilitating microservices architecture.
How do you implement continuous integration and continuous deployment (CI/CD) pipelines for ASP.NET Core?

Utilize tools like Azure DevOps, Jenkins, or GitHub Actions to automate the build, test, and deployment process of ASP.NET Core applications.

Set up pipelines to include steps for code compilation, running tests, and deploying to various environments (development, staging, production) based on triggers like code commits or manual approvals.

What are microservices?
  • Definition: An architectural style that structures an application as a collection of loosely coupled, independently deployable services.
  • Design in ASP.NET Core: Use ASP.NET Core’s lightweight, modular nature to develop individual microservices. Leverage APIs for communication between services and Docker containers for isolation and deployment.
Explain the role of messaging queues and service buses in distributed systems.
  • Messaging Queues (e.g., RabbitMQ, Azure Queue Storage): Enable asynchronous communication between services, enhancing decoupling and scalability.
  • Service Buses (e.g., Azure Service Bus, MassTransit): Provide more complex routing, message sequencing, and transaction management, facilitating sophisticated integration patterns across services.
What challenges do you face when developing distributed systems with ASP.NET Core?
  • Complexity: Increased complexity in managing multiple services, inter-service communication, and data consistency.
  • Deployment: Coordinating deployment across multiple services.
  • Monitoring and Logging: Centralizing logs and monitoring from disparate services.
  • Latency: Increased latency due to network calls between services.
How do you optimize performance in ASP.NET Core applications?
  • Response Caching: Use response caching to reduce the load on the server and speed up responses.
  • Asynchronous Programming: Leverage async/await to improve scalability and responsiveness.
  • Minimize Resource Usage: Optimize database queries, minimize the use of blocking calls, and use efficient algorithms.
What are some techniques to reduce latency in web applications?
  • Content Delivery Networks (CDNs): Use CDNs to serve static files closer to the user’s location.
  • Load Balancing: Distribute requests across multiple servers to reduce load and improve response times.
  • Optimize Assets: Minify and bundle CSS and JavaScript files, compress images.
Explain caching strategies in ASP.NET Core.
  • In-Memory Caching: Stores data in the memory of the web server for quick access. Suitable for single-server or ephemeral data.
  • Distributed Caching: Distributed cache systems like Redis or Memcached can be used to share cache data across multiple servers, which is beneficial for scalable applications.
  • Response Caching: Cache the entire response or parts of it to serve repeated requests quickly.
How do you identify and resolve performance bottlenecks?

To identify performance bottlenecks, I use tools like Visual Studio Diagnostic Tools, Application Insights, or third-party profilers. I focus on areas like slow database queries, inefficient memory use, or CPU-intensive operations. Once identified, I resolve these bottlenecks by optimizing the code, implementing caching, and using asynchronous programming models to improve response times and resource utilization.

What are the different types of tests you can write for ASP.NET Core applications?

In ASP.NET Core applications, we can write unit tests, integration tests, and functional tests. Unit tests focus on testing individual components or methods for correctness. Integration tests verify the interaction between components or systems, such as database access and API calls. Functional tests, or end-to-end tests, validate the application as a whole, ensuring that the user experience is as expected.

How do you unit test controllers and services?

To unit test controllers and services, I use a testing framework like xUnit or NUnit, along with a mocking library like Moq. For controllers, I mock the services they depend on to isolate the controller logic. For services, I mock external dependencies like database contexts or external APIs. This approach allows me to test the behavior of my code in isolation from its dependencies.

Explain integration testing in ASP.NET Core.

Integration testing in ASP.NET Core involves testing the application’s components as a whole, ensuring they work together as expected. This includes testing interactions with databases, file systems, and external services. I use the ASP.NET Core TestHost package to run the application in a test environment, allowing me to send requests to the application and assert the responses and side effects.

What are some popular testing frameworks used with ASP.NET Core?

Popular testing frameworks for ASP.NET Core include xUnit, NUnit, and MSTest for writing test cases. For mocking dependencies, libraries like Moq, NSubstitute, and FakeItEasy are commonly used. For integration testing, the ASP.NET Core provides built-in support through Microsoft.AspNetCore.TestHost package, which is often combined with SpecFlow for behavior-driven development (BDD) scenarios.

How do you create RESTful APIs in ASP.NET Core?

To create RESTful APIs in ASP.NET Core, I define controllers inheriting from ControllerBase and use attributes to map HTTP verbs to action methods. I adhere to REST principles, designing endpoints around resources and using HTTP verbs (GET, POST, PUT, DELETE) semantically. For content negotiation, I leverage ASP.NET Core’s built-in support to automatically handle JSON, XML, or custom formats based on the Accept header in the request.

What is the role of controllers and actions?

Controllers in ASP.NET Core serve as the entry point for handling HTTP requests and returning responses. Each controller contains actions, which are methods that handle requests for a specific route or URL. Actions read data from the request, perform operations (such as calling a service), and return a response, which can be a view, data, or status code.

Explain content negotiation in ASP.NET Core Web API.

Content negotiation in ASP.NET Core Web API involves selecting the appropriate format for the response content based on the client’s request. ASP.NET Core automatically handles this through the Accept header, where the client specifies the desired media type(s). The framework then uses formatters to serialize the response data into the requested format, such as JSON or XML.

How do you handle routing and versioning in Web APIs?

For routing, I use attribute routing in ASP.NET Core to define routes directly on controllers and actions, providing clear and customizable URL patterns. For versioning, I implement URL path, query string, or header-based versioning strategies using built-in services or third-party libraries. This approach allows me to maintain multiple versions of the API, ensuring backward compatibility while introducing new features.

In the next article, I will discuss Frequently Asked Top 50 ASP.NET Core MVC Basic Interview Questions and Answers. In this article, I provided the list of Frequently Asked Top 50 ASP.NET Core Experienced Interview Questions and Answers. I hope you enjoy this article on ASP.NET Core Experienced Interview Questions and Answers.

If you want to share any questions and answers, please put them in the comment section, which will benefit others. If you face any questions in the interview that we are not covering here, please feel free to put that question(s) in the comment section, and we will definitely add that question(s) with answers as soon as possible.

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