Test Cases in Software Testing

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Test Case in Software Testing

In this article, I am going to discuss What is a Test Case in Software Testing. Please read our previous article where we discussed Test Scenarios in Software Testing. At the end of this article, you will understand the following important pointers which are related to Test Case in Testing.

  1. What is a Test Case in Software Testing?
  2. What are the objectives of Writing a Test Case?
  3. What are the Test Case’s Parameters?
  4. When Should Test Cases Be Written?
  5. Why Compose Test Cases in Software Testing?
  6. What are the Good Techniques to Write a Test Case?
  7. Test Case Management Tools
  8. What are Formal and Informal Test Cases in Testing?
  9. Different Types of Test Cases in Software Testing
  10. Process of Writing a Test Case in Software Testing
  11. Example of Test Case in Software Testing
  12. What are the Advantages of a Test Case?
  13. What are the Disadvantages of a Test Case?
What is a Test Case in Software Testing?

A Test Case in Software Testing is a set of actions used to verify a certain feature or component of your software program. A test case consists of test instructions, test data, preconditions, and post-conditions that were developed for a specific test scenario to verify any need. The test case contains particular variables or conditions that a testing engineer might use to compare expected and actual outcomes in order to ascertain whether a software product is operating in accordance with client requirements.

Software testing is a procedure for checking and confirming that a piece of software or application is operational. It ensures that the software is operating without any bugs, errors, or other problems and provides the user with the desired results. In addition to identifying flaws in the software that is currently in use, the software testing process looks for ways to improve the product’s effectiveness, usability, and accuracy. So, a specific framework known as a Test Case is offered by software testing to test software.

What are the Objectives of Writing a Test Case?
  • To verify certain program features and functions.
  • To assist testers in their routine hands-on work.
  • To keep track of all the actions executed so that they can be reviewed if a bug appears.
  • So that testing and projects can be built upon instead of having to start from zero in the future.
  • To aid in the early detection of design flaws and usability problems.
  • Even if they join in the middle of a project, to make it easier for new testers and developers to pick up testing rapidly.
What are the Test Case’s Parameters?
  • Module Name: This is the subject or title that describes how the test will perform.
  • Test Case ID: Test Case Number is a number issued to each condition in a test case that is distinctive.
  • Tester Name: Name of the person administering the test, or the “tester.”
  • Test scenario: The test scenario gives the tester a quick overview of what has to be done as well as specific details about the small features and parts of the test.
  • Test Case Description: The condition must be verified for a certain piece of software, for instance. Verify whether the age input box’s only-numbers validation is functioning or not.
  • Test Steps: Activities to carry out to verify the situation.
  • Prerequisite: The requirements that must be met before the test procedure can begin are referred to as prerequisites.
  • Test Priority: As the name suggests, this setting accords a higher ranking to those test cases that needed to be run first or that are more crucial and could wait until later.
  • Test Data: The inputs required to assess the circumstances.
  • Test Expected Result: The output that should be anticipated following the test is referred to as the test expected result.
  • Test Parameters: Test parameters are the variables chosen for a certain test scenario.
  • Actual Result: The output that is shown at the end is the actual result.
  • Environment Information: Information about the environment in which the test is being run, including the operating system, security details, the name and version of the product, etc.
  • Status: A test’s pass, fail, NA, etc., status.
  • Comments: Remarks about the test regarding the test for the software’s improvement.
When Should Test Cases Be Written?

Different circumstances are used when writing test cases:

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  • Before Development: Before beginning the actual coding, test cases might be created to help establish the needs of the product or program. The tests could then be run once the product or software has been produced.
  • After Development: When necessary to test the functionality of a particular feature, test cases are also produced immediately after generating a product or piece of software, or after developing the feature but before the product or piece of software is released.
  • Test cases may occasionally be written concurrently with the development process. Therefore, anytime a module or piece of software is developed, it is tested as well.

In such situations, test cases are created because they aid in further development and ensure that we are fulfilling all necessary requirements.

Why Compose Test Cases in Software Testing?

One of the most crucial components of software engineering is test cases, which specify how testing will be done. Test cases are run for the incredibly straightforward purpose of determining if the software actually functions or not. The writing of test cases has various benefits:

  • Test cases are useful for determining whether or not a specific module or piece of software satisfies the criteria.
  • Test cases determine if a specific module or piece of software functions under a specific set of circumstances.
  • Test cases assist in focusing on the program requirements and necessary modifications.
  • As they are detailed and well-documented, test cases are straightforward, easy to understand, and easy to follow.
  • Because test cases are comprehensive, they are useful for the maintenance phase.
What are the Good Techniques to Write a Test Case?

When writing test cases, there are a few guidelines that may be followed that would be advantageous:

  • Simple and Transparent: Test cases must be highly transparent, clear, and succinct. They ought to be basic and easy to understand for both oneself and other people.
  • Maintain Uniqueness: It’s important to make sure that the test cases aren’t written again and that each one is distinct from the others while writing them.
  • Zero Assumptions: Test cases shouldn’t use presumptive information, and you shouldn’t create features or modules that don’t exist.
  • Traceability: It’s crucial to remember when writing that test cases should be traceable for future reference.
  • Different Input Data: All sorts of data must be considered while creating test cases.
  • Strong Module Name: When writing the test case, the module name should be self-explanatory.
  • The description of a test case should be brief; one or two lines are typically regarded as best practice, but it should adequately provide the fundamental overview.
  • Maximum Conditions: To increase the effectiveness of a test, all possible conditions should be taken into account when writing it.
  • Meeting Needs: It’s critical that the client/customer/end-user requirements be met when writing the test case.
  • Repetitive Results: The test case needs to be written so that it consistently produces the same outcome.
  • Different Techniques: While it may not always be possible to test all scenarios, adopting various techniques and test cases can help to ensure that the software is flawless.
Explain Test Case Management Tools

Tools for test management make managing test cases easier. In comparison to the conventional method, these automated technologies save a tester time and work. Advanced dashboards, simpler bug, and progress tracking and management, personalized test case templates, integration of test cases, inviting guest testers, managing team requirements and plans, and much more are examples of test case management solutions.

A couple of the tools are listed below:

  • Testpad: Testpad is a straightforward application that streamlines test case management. The basic slogan of the program states that it seeks out critical bugs. Manual testing, reports of the test cases and software, dragging and dropping to facilitate testing, inviting guest testers via email, creating unique templates, and many other capabilities are just a few of Testpad’s features.
  • TestCaseLab: TestCaseLab is simple to use and can quickly integrate test cases with issue trackers. TestCaseLab’s features include custom test cases, test runs, test case integrations, test plans, test case tags and priorities, search by test case name, description, tags, and more.
  • TestRail: Another platform, called TestRail, accelerates software testing procedures and provides greater QA visibility in an effort to simplify test case administration. TestRail’s core capabilities include management for test cases, plans, and runs, increased test coverage, in-the-moment QA progress insights, etc.
  • TestLodge: With the use of the test case management application TestLodge, the complete team can manage their requirements, test plans, test cases, and test runs in one location with no user cap. Test Plans, Test Runs, Dashboard, Test Suite, and many other features are among the core capabilities of TestLodge.
What are Formal and Informal Test Cases in Testing?
  1. Formal Test Cases: Formal test cases adhere to the fundamental test case structure. It includes the test case parameters, including circumstances, an Id, the name of the Module, etc. Formal test cases are executed in accordance with the prescribed order of stages and have predetermined input data and expected outputs.
  2. Informal Test Cases: Informal test cases don’t adhere to the conventional test case structure. In these, the input and anticipated results are not preset, and the test cases are written as the tests are run rather than beforehand.
Different Types of Test Cases in Software Testing

Different Types of Test Cases in Software Testing

  1. Functionality Test Case: The purpose of the functionality test case is to evaluate how well the software’s user interface integrates with the rest of the system and its users. Black box testing is utilized while checking for this test case since everything is checked externally rather than inside.
  2. Unit Test Case: In a unit test case, the software’s individual components or individual units are tested. Each unit/individual part is tested in this situation, and we develop a unique test scenario for each unit.
  3. User Interface Test Case: In a user interface test, each UI element that a user might interact with is put to the test. It is to determine whether or not the user’s request for certain UI components has been met.
  4. Integration Test Case: Integration testing is the process of combining and testing all of the software’s individual components. It is to make sure that every unit and component functions properly together.
  5. Performance Test Case: The performance test case aids in determining both response time and the system’s or software’s general efficacy. To determine whether the program can genuinely manage the demands of the real world.
  6. Database Test Case: Data testing, also referred to as database testing, verifies that everything functions properly with regard to the database. There are completed test cases for tables, schema, triggers, etc.
  7. Security Test Case: The security test case enables evaluation of the application’s ability to impose appropriate action and permission restrictions. Regarding the security test scenario, encryption and authentication are thought to be the major goals. The purpose of the security test case is to safeguard and protect the software’s data.
  8. Usability Test Case: User experience test cases, or usability test cases, examine how user-friendly or simple to use software would be. The testing team executes usability test cases created by the user experience team.
  9. User Acceptance Test Case: The testing team prepares the user acceptance test cases, but the user or client tests and reviews them to see if they function in the real-world setting.
Explain the Process of Writing a Test Case in Software Testing

The steps involved in writing a test case can be broken down into the following groups:

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Process of Writing a Test Case in Software Testing

  • System Study: By examining the requirements or the SRS, which is provided by the customer, we will be able to comprehend the application in this.
  • Identify All Scenarios:
  1. What are the potential software uses that the user could do after the product is released to find every potential use?
  2. In a document titled test design/high-level design, I have listed every situation that might occur.
  3. The test design serves as a record of all potential outcomes.
  • Write Test Cases: Write test cases using test case design approaches and the standard test case template, which is the one chosen for the project, and convert all of the detected situations into test claims. Group the scenarios according to their features.
  • Review the Test Cases: Give the team leader a chance to study the test case before making any necessary corrections to the reviewer’s comments.
  • Test Case Approval: Send the test case again for approval after making the necessary changes in response to the feedback.
  • Store in the Repository for Test Cases: After the specific test case has been approved, store it in the test case repository, which is a well-known location.
Example of Test Case in Software Testing

Let’s imagine we need to inspect a field that can only take 10 characters. The following format is used to document the test cases as they are being created for the scenario mentioned above. The first scenario in the example below is a success, whereas the second is a failure.

Scenario Test Step Expected Result Actual Outcome
Make sure the input field can allow no more than 10 characters. Enter 10 characters to sign in to the application. All 10 characters should be supported by the application. All 10 characters are accepted by the application.
Check to make sure the input box can accept no more than 11 characters. Enter 11 characters to sign in to the application. All 11 characters shouldn’t be accepted by the application. All 10 characters are accepted by the application.
What are the Advantages of a Test Case?
  1. Finding Errors: Test cases assist in finding errors and problems in software, ensuring its dependability and functionality.
  2. Coverage: Well-designed test cases guarantee thorough testing of all the software’s features and functionalities, leaving no gaps untested.
  3. Repetition and Reproducibility: Test cases offer a series of actions that may be regularly carried out to verify software behavior and spot irregularities.
  4. They act as helpful documentation, explaining the intended actions and specifications of the software.
  5. Test cases check that the software complies with the requirements, assuring customer satisfaction and compliance. This is known as requirement validation.
What are the Disadvantages of a Test Case?
  1. Limited Coverage: It is hard to test every potential combination of inputs and system states since test cases can only cover a portion of possible possibilities.
  2. Time-Consuming: Creating, running, and maintaining test cases can take a lot of effort, particularly when working with complicated software systems or regular modifications.
  3. Costly: The resources needed to create and run test cases, such as staff, equipment, and infrastructure, can raise the overall cost of software testing.
  4. Static Nature: Test cases are frequently built using predetermined inputs and conditions, which may not correctly reflect unforeseen situations or real-world usage.
  5. Defect Detection that is Insufficient: Test cases can only find errors that are expressly checked for, potentially ignoring other crucial flaws that were not taken into account when designing test cases.

In the next article, I am going to discuss Error Guessing Techniques in Testing. Here, in this article, I try to explain Test Cases in Software Testing. I hope you enjoy this Test Case in the Software Testing article.

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