SDLC – V Model


SDLC – V Model

In this article, I am going to discuss SDLC – V Model. Please read our previous article where we discussed SDLC – Prototype Model.

What do you mean by V Model in SDLC?

A project management and software development strategy in software engineering that emphasizes a methodical and disciplined procedure is known as the V model. Because of its graphic representation, which looks like the letter “V,” it is known as the “V model.” The Verification and Validation model is another name for the V model.

By including testing activities at each stage of the development process, the V model expands on the conventional waterfall approach. Each phase of the development life cycle and its accompanying testing phase are established as having a distinct link. The V model’s main objective is to make sure that testing is an essential component of the development process and that quality is incorporated into the program from the start.

The V-Model is a conventional waterfall model variation used in software development that places more emphasis on the verification and validation phases. The software development life cycle (SDLC) is represented by a “V” shape to show the flow of tasks and products. The Validation and Verification Model and the Verification and Validation Model are other names for the V-Model.


Each phase of the development process has a matching phase of testing in the V-Model. The left side of the “V” is formed by the alignment of the development and testing stages, which slope downward. The left side of the diagram shows the activities involved in producing deliverables and artifacts, and the right side shows the activities involved in testing them.

What is the use of the V Model in SDLC?

The software development lifecycle (SDLC) paradigm known as the V model, often called the Verification and Validation model, emphasizes the connection between each step of development and its corresponding testing phase. With a significant emphasis on testing and quality assurance, it is a structured method that aids in ensuring that software development happens in a well-defined and systematic manner.

The V model’s primary function in the SDLC is to provide an organized and thorough testing procedure. It highlights the corresponding verification and validation stages and displays the connection between each development phase and its related testing activities.

The main advantage of the V model is that it places a strong emphasis on early testing and validation operations, making it possible to identify and address problems at an early stage of development. It offers a methodical and clear approach to testing that helps ensure software quality and lowers the possibility of expensive mistakes and flaws. The V model encourages a more organized and dependable SDLC process by coordinating testing operations with each development phase.

Explain the Phases of the V Model in SDLC

The V model emphasizes the connection between each stage of the development process and its corresponding stage of testing. It is a lifecycle model for software development. The V-shaped figure that depicts the relationship between these phases is where the term “V model” originates. It promotes a more methodical and disciplined approach to software development by ensuring that the testing activities are in line with the development activities. Following are the V model’s phases and some examples:

Phases of the V Model in SDLC

Let us understand each phase of the V Model in detail.

  1. Requirements Gathering and Analysis: The software requirements are gathered, examined, and recorded during this stage. This entails establishing system functionalities, specifying any limitations or quality requirements, and comprehending the needs of the stakeholders. For instance, in a project to create an e-commerce website, determining the desired features, such as user registration, a product catalog, a shopping cart, payment processing, etc., may be part of the requirements gathering phase.
  2. System Design: In the system design phase, the requirements are translated into a thorough design. It entails defining system components, developing interfaces between them, and developing architectural designs. The system design phase could involve creating the database schema, specifying the system’s modules or components, and sketching out the user interface layout, to use the e-commerce website as an example.
  3. Architectural Design: The architectural design is developed in detail during this stage. The major system design elements are further divided into more manageable modules or subsystems. The definition of the interfaces, data flows, and interactions between these subsystems is the primary goal of the architectural design phase. The following subsystems could be part of our e-commerce application’s architectural design: user administration, product catalog, shopping cart, payment gateway integration, and order processing.
  4. Module Design: Individual modules or components that were identified during the system design phase are designed in depth at this stage. The internal organization, information flow, algorithms, and interfaces of each module are specified in the module design. For instance, designing modules for user authentication, product search, order processing, etc. may be part of the module design phase for an e-commerce website project.
  5. Implementation: Based on the designs produced in the earlier phases, the implementation phase entails coding the software. Each module’s code is created by developers using best practices and coding standards. The implementation part of the e-commerce website project would involve writing the code for various modules, integrating them, and making sure they functioned properly.
  6. Unit testing: Unit testing is done to make sure that each module or component works properly. It focuses on individually testing each unit to make sure it performs as expected. For instance, unit testing would entail testing individual modules such as user registration, product search, or payment processing to confirm their behavior and correctness in the e-commerce website project.
  7. Integration Testing: Integration testing is done to evaluate how well various modules or components work together. It guarantees that the modules interact freely and correctly within the integrated system. Integration testing would be used in the e-commerce website project to test scenarios where modules interact, such as the end-to-end flow of adding products to a shopping cart, handling payments, and generating order confirmations.
  8. System Testing: System testing verifies the entire system in light of the given requirements. To make sure that it satisfies the desired functionality and performance standards, it focuses on evaluating the system as a whole, including all integrated modules. System testing for the e-commerce website project would comprise testing numerous user scenarios, evaluating the system’s performance under varied loads, and confirming that it complies with the criteria.
  9. Acceptance Testing: Acceptance testing is carried out to ensure that the system satisfies the expectations and requirements of the stakeholders. It entails running predetermined test scenarios and comparing the system to the accepted standards. For instance, the stakeholders in the e-commerce website project would conduct acceptance testing to make sure the website is functional, satisfies their business requirements, and provides the desired user experience.
What are the Advantages of the V Model?

The V-model is an SDLC paradigm that places emphasis on a structured and methodical approach to developing software. The V-model’s characteristic V-shaped graphic, which depicts the order of operations during the development process, is what gives it its name. The benefits of the SDLC’s V-model can be summed up as follows:

  1. Clarity: The V-model makes it simpler for stakeholders to comprehend and monitor progress by providing a clear and visual picture of the development process.
  2. Save Money: Early testing and validation activities are encouraged by the V-model, which aids in the early detection of faults and other problems. This lowers the need for rework and saves money.
  3. Traceability: The V-model makes sure that specifications are connected to particular design components and that test cases are produced from those specifications. This improves traceability and guarantees that all standards are met in a sufficient manner.
  4. Thorough Testing: The V-model emphasizes thorough testing at every step of development, including user acceptability testing, system testing, integration testing, and unit testing. This guarantees the software’s high quality and compliance with the specifications.
  5. Reduced Risks: By addressing possible problems early on, enabling prompt mitigation, and avoiding expensive shocks later in the development cycle, the V-model’s structured approach reduces risks.
What are the Disadvantages of the V Model?

A well-known software development life cycle (SDLC) model, the V-model places an emphasis on a sequential, linear method of software development. It has a number of benefits, but it also has some severe drawbacks. The following are the drawbacks of the V-model:

  1. Rigidity: The V-model is rigid and highly organized, making it difficult to adapt to changes or take into account input during the development process. It struggles to deal with unforeseen changes, which can cause delays and higher expenses.
  2. Limited Client Interaction: Up until the testing stage, the V-model emphasizes a sequential process with little client involvement. As a result, there may not be enough client feedback, which may lead to the delivery of a product that falls short of the client’s requirements or expectations.
  3. More Repair Costs: Errors are discovered relatively late in the development process because defects or errors are frequently discovered during the testing stage. This delayed detection may result in more expensive repair work and costs.
  4. Limited Adaptability: The V-model’s limited adaptability makes it unsuitable for projects that need numerous alterations or iterations. It works best for projects with consistent needs, and any modifications outside the specified boundaries can sabotage the entire development cycle.
  5. Delays and Dependencies: The V-model is based on sequential dependencies, where each phase must be finished before the next one can start. If any phase takes longer than expected, this dependency may result in delays that influence the project’s overall schedule.

In the next article, I am going to discuss Manual Testing. Here, in this article, I try to explain SDLC – V Model. I hope you enjoy this SDLC – V Model article.

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