Hybrid Model in Software Testing
In this article, I am going to discuss Hybrid Model in Software Testing. Please read our previous article where we discussed Spiral Model in Software Testing.
What is Hybrid Model in Software Testing?
A hybrid model combines two or more primary (conventional) models and makes adjustments to them in accordance with business needs. The other SDLC models, such as spiral, V, and V, and prototype models, are all required for this model to function. Typically, small, medium, and large projects adopt the hybrid model. It focuses on the product’s risk management. The term “hybrid model” in software engineering refers to a strategy that integrates many software development processes, techniques, or practices to produce a unique and adaptable framework for software development. It entails combining components from other models to capitalize on their advantages and meet particular project requirements.
In software engineering, the hybrid model is frequently employed when a single methodology or approach is insufficient to address the needs of a project or when various project components call for several techniques. Organizations can improve the structure and flexibility of their software development processes by combining several approaches. The following is the most typical pairing of the two models:
- Prototype and Spiral
- V & V and prototype
Let’s take a quick look at these two categories of models:
Prototype and Spiral
The following circumstances call for the adoption of the spiral and prototype model:
- When there is dependency, we use spiral and prototype models.
- When the customer provides needs in stages, we use this model to construct the product in stages.
- When the client is unclear about the needs and extremely new to the software sector.
- When the developers are unfamiliar with the specific program.
How do the Spiral model and Prototype Processes work?
There are two main methods for developing software: the spiral model and the prototype model. A hybrid model combines various methods to capitalize on each one’s advantages. Let’s go over each model individually before talking about the phases in the hybrid approach with an illustration.
The spiral model is an incremental software development approach that places a focus on risk analysis. It entails the following actions:
- Establish Objectives: Outline the goals, specifications, and limitations of the project.
- Risk Analysis: Identify and evaluate any possible project-related hazards. In this step, stakeholders’ opinions are gathered, potential hazards are assessed, and they are prioritized.
- Development of a Prototype: Develop a prototype in accordance with the initial specifications and risk assessment. This prototype helps test the design and obtain user feedback. It is often a scaled-down replica of the finished product.
- Evaluate and Plan: Evaluate the prototype’s strengths and weaknesses, and based on this evaluation, plan the next iteration. This step includes refining requirements, adjusting the project scope, and updating the development plan.
- Create and Test: Create the software iteratively, including the modifications and advancements made in the preceding iteration. Conduct quality control and testing procedures all along the development process.
- Review and Iterate: Evaluate the outcomes of each iteration, get input from key stakeholders, and adjust the project plan as necessary. Up until the software reaches the specified quality criteria, repeat the spiral model procedures.
This approach focuses on creating a functioning version of the software in order to get user feedback and fine-tune the requirements. The steps involved are as follows:
- Conditions Collecting: Compile and evaluate the initial demands from the stakeholders. To comprehend the requirements and expectations of the user, this process incorporates interviews, questionnaires, and conversations.
- Design and Development: Based on the needs gathered, create a prototype. This prototype ought to be functional enough to showcase important features and interactions. Faster functioning model development is prioritized over thorough documentation.
- Prototype Evaluation: Evaluation of the prototype is done by sharing it with users and stakeholders. Analyze the prototype’s performance, usability, and user satisfaction. The requirements and design are improved and adjusted thanks to your feedback.
- Refine and Iterate: Improve the prototype based on the input you’ve received. Repeat the design, development, and evaluation processes iteratively until the prototype meets the needs and expectations of the user.
Let’s now examine the procedures used in the hybrid model, which combines both strategies:
Hybrid Model in Software Testing:
To attain the advantages of both strategies, the hybrid model incorporates components of the spiral and prototype models. The steps are as follows:
- Establish Goals: Specify the goals, demands, and limitations of the project.
- Risk Analysis: Identify and examine any possible project-related hazards. Prioritize hazards according to their likelihood and impact.
- Development of a Prototype: Create an initial prototype that addresses the fundamental characteristics and capabilities of the software. The iterative development process begins with this prototype.
- Assess and Plan: Compile user input on the prototype and assess its advantages and disadvantages. Based on the comments received, modify the requirements and development plan.
- Spiral Iterations: Continue iterating the spiral model while adding user input and continuously enhancing the program. Refining requirements, developing, testing, and evaluating are just a few of the tasks that are included in each iteration.
- Refine and Iterate: Continue to improve and polish the prototype throughout the spiral iterations depending on the changing needs and user input.
- Review and Repetition: Consistently evaluate the project’s advancement, evaluate the quality and usefulness of the prototype, and get input from stakeholders. Up till the software achieves the intended goals, repeat the spiral iterations and prototype refining.
How do the V and V Models and Prototype Processes Work?
To capitalize on their advantages, the V-model and Prototype model can be merged to create a hybrid model. The following is how they can be combined:
- Conditions Gathering: To showcase essential functions and get user feedback, a simple prototype is constructed after the first requirements are gathered and examined.
- V-model Phase: After the prototype is approved, system design, coding, integration, and testing can be done using the V-model stages. This guarantees an organized approach with suitable validation and verification procedures.
- Iterative Refinement: User feedback can be continuously included during the V-model phases to improve the system and its features.
- Final Development: The system can go through a final development phase to address any outstanding requirements or improvements after completing the V-model phases.
You can benefit from early user interaction and quick iterations while still ensuring thorough testing and a disciplined development process by combining the V-model with the Prototype model in a hybrid approach.
It’s vital to remember that the specific hybrid model implementation may vary based on the needs of the project and organization. The phases and processes can be modified to meet the needs and restrictions of the project.
Hybrid Model in the System Development Life Cycle
The Hybrid Model follows all phases of SDLC along with flexibility in using the required models:
The primary shape of the Hybrid model includes the following processes:
- Planning: Contains the planning of necessary tasks to define the resources and timelines, and making plans for the system development process and other information that is related to the project.
- Requirements: In this phase, all requirements needed to develop the system are collected from the client which includes all functional and non-functional requirements of the system. Here, many requirement documents are developed as per the needs of the model. After collecting all requirements, the Business Analyst analyzes them and with the help of other senior team members converts them into technical requirements called SRS (System Requirement Specification) which is helpful for the development team.
- Design: In the design phase, the architecture of the system is designed by the team members, they design a working model which specifies how the system will look, how control flows from screen to screen, and shows the functionality of different modules.
- Implementation: This transforms the design into a formula that computers can read. Also, it structures the system components by using one of the programming languages according to its planning.
- Integration Development: This connects the different components of a system into one community and subsequently forms one formal system. In this phase, the different parts should complete each other without any negative effect on the rest of the system components.
- Testing: The testing process starts with the first phase of any system, namely “planning’.’ It includes the planning test, requirements collection test, design, representation, and integration.
- Deployment: This is the final stage to hand over the system to the customer. In this phase, the tested developed system is deployed to the customer’s deployable environment for its use and experience.
- Maintenance: The software undergoes some modifications after handing it over to the customer. These modifications occur because of the difficulties faced. Other reasons may be the necessity of adjusting to the changes in the external environment or to the customer’s requests to make improvements in performance or function.
- Risk Analysis: This phase defines the risk involved in various phases of the Hybrid Model and it runs parallel to all phases of the Hybrid Model. It identifies the risk areas in different phases and points out them.
What are the Advantages of the Hybrid Model in Software Testing?
In many disciplines, hybrid models—which incorporate diverse strategies or components from several models or systems—offer a number of benefits. The following are some major benefits of hybrid models:
- Improved Performance: By combining the best elements of each strategy, hybrid models improve overall performance by leveraging the capabilities of many models. In comparison to solo models, they can achieve greater accuracy and efficiency by incorporating a variety of methodologies.
- Flexibility: Hybrid models are flexible and may be tailored to meet certain requirements. They can include several structures or algorithms, enabling users to modify the model to handle certain problems or datasets.
- Robustness: Hybrid models may be more resistant to data fluctuations and uncertainty. Multiple models can be combined to produce forecasts that are more accurate and manage complicated situations that may be difficult for individual models to handle.
- Better Generalization: Hybrid models may generalize more effectively across various tasks or domains. They can capture a wider range of patterns and features by utilizing various models, which improves performance on unobserved data.
- Domain-Specific Expertise: When designing a hybrid model, domain-specific knowledge or expertise can be incorporated. They can provide forecasts that are more precise and relevant to the situation by fusing the insights of subject-matter experts with data-driven methods.
What are the Disadvantages of the Hybrid Model?
The following list of drawbacks of a hybrid model can be summed up:
- Complexity: Creating and implementing hybrid models can be challenging and need knowledge of several modeling methodologies as well as the integration of several components.
- Higher Cost: Higher development and maintenance costs can result from the fusion of several models and technologies.
- Performance Trade-offs: Compared to specialized models, hybrid models may not always attain the best performance. Accuracy, speed, and efficiency may have to be compromised.
- Requirements for Training Data: Hybrid models frequently require considerable and varied training data for each component, which makes data collecting and annotation more difficult.
- Integration Problems: It might be technically difficult to combine many models into a coherent hybrid system, which could cause problems with model compatibility and interoperability.
Why Hybrid Model in Software Testing?
With the increasing use of agility in software development, the traditional model cannot sustain as it does not help in fast delivery, achieve a high success rate, and cannot deal with changing customer requirements, this is all due to their lengthy process and standards. So, we need a hybrid Model as it:
- Has the benefits of two individual models.
- Resolve the dependency of models.
- Is suitable for both small and medium-sized systems.
- Involves customers at all phases of development.
- Helps in early delivery.
When To Use the Hybrid Model in SDLC?
A hybrid Model is developed when we combine two models and this development is useful when:
- The customer is not fixed on its system requirements.
- The requirements of the system cannot be met by using a single SDLC model.
- The organization wants to use agility but complexity is a barrier.
- A fully planned approach to the budget is needed.
- Teams of the organization want collaboration.
Comparison Between the Hybrid Model and Spiral Model
In the next article, I am going to discuss the Prototype Model in SDLC. Here, in this article, I try to explain Hybrid Model in Software Testing. I hope you enjoy this Hybrid Model in Software Testing article.
About the Author: Pranaya Rout
Pranaya Rout has published more than 3,000 articles in his 11-year career. Pranaya Rout has very good experience with Microsoft Technologies, Including C#, VB, ASP.NET MVC, ASP.NET Web API, EF, EF Core, ADO.NET, LINQ, SQL Server, MYSQL, Oracle, ASP.NET Core, Cloud Computing, Microservices, Design Patterns and still learning new technologies.