SDLC – Prototype Model


SDLC – Prototype Model

In this article, I am going to discuss SDLC – Prototype Model. Please read our previous article where we discussed Hybrid Model in Software Testing.

What does the Prototype Model Mean in SDLC?

A prototype model in software engineering denotes a draught or early rendering of a software system or product. As a proof of concept, it enables stakeholders to see and assess important facets of the program before devoting a considerable number of resources to its creation. The software development life cycle’s requirements gathering and design phases both frequently employ the prototype approach.

A prototype model’s primary goal is to collect input and confirm design judgments. It allows for early input from stakeholders and allows them to base their judgments on the functionality, user interface, and overall user experience of the prototype. This iterative method aids in spotting possible problems, streamlining specifications, and enhancing the end result.

Different methods, such as low-fidelity sketches, wireframes, mockups, or interactive software simulations, can be used to develop prototypes. These prototypes can be fully functional, allowing users to interact with specific features or non-functional, focusing mainly on the visual and navigational aspects.


Software development teams can lower the risk of creating a product that does not live up to consumer expectations or does not satisfy their needs by employing a prototype model. It enables early problem detection, allows for course adjustments prior to moving on with full-scale development, and fosters good communication between stakeholders and developers. The final software product’s success and quality are ultimately influenced by the prototype model.

Why do we need Prototype Model in SDLC?

A prototype model is used in software engineering for many purposes and has numerous advantages. We require prototype models for the following reasons:

  1. Requirement Validation: Prototypes give clients and end users a chance to see and engage with a preliminary version of the software product. In order to make sure that the final product fulfills their wants and expectations, this helps validate and revise requirements.
  2. User Feedback: Early in the development process, engineers can acquire important user feedback by producing a prototype. Users can identify potential problems or lacking features, offer suggestions for changes, and provide insights. The software’s functionality and design can be improved with the help of this feedback.
  3. Risk Reduction: The software project’s possible risks and difficulties can be identified with the use of prototyping. Building and testing a prototype allows developers to identify technical constraints, practicality questions, and usability problems. Before devoting a considerable amount of money to large-scale growth, this enables them to reduce risks and make wise judgments.
  4. Iterative Development: The software is produced incrementally using an iterative development approach, allowing for continual improvement. Prototypes facilitate this technique. Different prototypes can be swiftly built and tested by developers, who can also gather input and make modifications as they go. The inclusion of user wants and changing requirements through this iterative process results in a better final product.
  5. Collaboration and Communication: During the software development process, many stakeholders can communicate with one another via prototypes. They facilitate successful communication between programmers, designers, clients, and users by giving a concrete picture of the software’s planned functionality. This promotes congruence of expectations and mutual understanding.
  6. Cost and Time Savings: Prototyping enables the early identification and remediation of problems, which can result in considerable time and resource savings. Costly rework and redevelopment can be avoided later on by spotting issues early on and improving the design. This improves development efficiency and lowers the possibility of going over budget and starting late.
  7. Marketing and Investor Engagement: Demonstrating the software’s potential to prospective clients, investors, or other stakeholders can be done through prototypes. A functioning and aesthetically pleasing prototype can aid in gaining interest, funding, or support for the project.

Prototype models are useful in software engineering because they may be used to validate requirements, gather user input, lower risks, promote collaboration, and enhance the overall quality of the finished software product.

Explain the Process of the Prototype Model in SDLC

The prototype model is an incremental and iterative method of software development in the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). Before moving on with full-scale development, it entails the creation of a functional prototype of the software to gather user feedback and fine-tune requirements. The following stages are often included in the prototype model:

Process of the Prototype Model in SDLC

Let us understand each step in detail.

  1. Requirements Gathering: The development team collaborates closely with the stakeholders throughout this phase to comprehend their needs and expectations for the program. The emphasis is on establishing the essential characteristics and capabilities that the prototype should exhibit. Example: Think of a project to create a mobile banking app. The team would gather specifications such as the capability to examine account balances, transfer money, pay bills, and view transaction history at this phase.
  2. Software Prototype Design: The development team creates a simple software prototype based on the specifications received. Even though the prototype might not include all the features of the finished product, it should be able to show off the essential features and user interface. As an illustration, the prototype design for the mobile banking application might have screens that show account balances, a fund transfer interface, and a transaction history page. At this point, the design might not incorporate elements like bill-paying capabilities or sophisticated security protections.
  3. Prototype Development: Using the intended interface as a basis, the development team creates a functioning prototype during this stage. Implementing the essential features and making sure the prototype can be shown to stakeholders for feedback are the main priorities. The development team builds a prototype of a mobile banking application with the bare minimum of functions, such as login/authentication, account balance display, and fund transfer functionality. The prototype might not be fully integrated with the banking system at this time, but it ought to give users a mock experience.
  4. Evaluation of the Prototype: After completion, the prototype is shared with users and stakeholders for feedback. Feedback is received to determine any adjustments that should be made to the specifications or structure of the software. The mobile banking application prototype’s stakeholders and potential customers can test its functioning on their smartphones. They can offer feedback on the user experience, point out any usability concerns, identify any missing functionality, and recommend modifications to the interface.
  5. Prototype Refinement: The development team refines the prototype in light of the comments it obtained during the evaluation phase. Changes to the design, the addition or modification of functionality, performance enhancements, and usability difficulties may all be part of this phase. As an illustration, the development team takes into account user and stakeholder feedback. They might improve the user interface, add new features like bill payment or account statements, boost performance, and fix any problems that have been brought to their attention.
  6. Prototype Validation: During this stage, the improved prototype is examined by users and stakeholders to make sure it satisfies their needs and expectations. Verifying that the adjustments made in the previous stage have addressed the problems indicated is the main objective. Example: The stakeholders and users of the mobile banking application reevaluate the prototype. They check to see if the adjustments have satisfied their needs and remedied the problems they had identified. Until the prototype is accepted, this step may require additional refining and validation iterations.
  7. System Development: Following validation and approval, the prototype serves as the basis for the following stages of the SDLC. The software’s features, design, and specifications are included in the full-scale development of the program by the development team. Example: The development team begins creating the full mobile banking application based on the validated prototype. They incorporate all the needed features, enhance the user interface, put advanced security protocols in place, and guarantee the application’s scalability, dependability, and performance.
What are the Advantages of the Prototype Model?

In the process of developing a product, prototype models have a number of benefits.

  1. Quicker input: Early user involvement and feedback are made possible through prototyping, allowing for quick design changes and enhancements.
  2. Visual Representation: Prototypes give stakeholders a concrete example of the product concept, assisting them in visualizing and comprehending its attributes, including its features, functionality, and appearance.
  3. Error Detection: Before spending a lot of money on a full-scale production, defects, design mistakes, or usability problems can be found and fixed by testing a prototype.
  4. Economical: Creating a prototype is typically less expensive than creating a finished product. It enables the testing of theories and concepts without expending a lot of money.
  5. Risk Reduction: By detecting potential difficulties and confirming technological viability, prototypes assist in analyzing and minimizing risks connected with product development.
  6. Collaboration and Communication: Prototypes help designers, developers, and stakeholders work together effectively and communicate so that everyone is on the same page about the desired outcome of the project.
  7. Marketing and Finance: A prototype can be used to show the potential of the product to potential buyers, investors, and stakeholders, helping to secure funding and marketing initiatives.
  8. Competitive Advantage: By creating and testing prototypes, businesses can gain knowledge of the market, their competitors, and consumer needs. This knowledge will help them gain an advantage when they launch the finished product.
What are the Disadvantages of the Prototype Model?

The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) prototype approach has a number of benefits, including early feedback, enhanced collaboration, and better user comprehension. It does, however, have some drawbacks that must be taken into account. The prototype model has the following major flaws:

  1. Time and Expense: Creating a prototype takes more time and money, which might raise the project’s ultimate cost. Building and perfecting the prototype can require more work, which could cause delays and put pressure on the budget.
  2. Limited Scalability: Prototypes are sometimes created with constrained functionality, concentrating on particular features or elements. This may cause problems when converting the prototype into a complete system. The prototype’s design and architecture may not be appropriate for long-term scalability and may need extensive revision.
  3. Incomplete Needs: Since prototypes are frequently created based on evolving or incomplete requirements, it’s possible that important functionalities or features will be left out. This can cause gaps between the prototype and the finished product, which would call for further development cycles.
  4. Increase Time: Scope creep is a possibility with frequent feedback and iterations, where new requirements and features are constantly being introduced to the prototype. This may result in a project scope that keeps growing, making it difficult to define and complete the project within the allocated time and resources.
  5. User Confusion: Because prototypes often don’t precisely depict the finished product, users may become confused or have inflated expectations. Users might not be able to tell the difference between the prototype and the finished product, which could lead to concerns with usability.

In the next article, I am going to discuss the SDLC – V Model. Here, in this article, I try to explain SDLC – Prototype Model. I hope you enjoy this SDLC – Prototype Model article.


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