Introduction to Programming

Introduction to Programming Languages:

Are you aiming to become a Software engineer one day? Do you also want to develop an application for Solving Problems and People all over the world would love to use? Are you passionate enough to take the big step to enter the world of programming? Then you are in the right place. In this article, you will get a brief Introduction to Programming Languages. As part of this article, we are going to discuss the following pointers.

  1. Program and Programming
  2. Programming Languages
  3. Types of Software’s
  4. Operating Systems
  5. Compiler, Interpreter, Assembler, Loader, and Linker
Program and Programming:

Program: A Program is a common computer term that means it is executed by software that runs on a computer when the program is used as what it means to create a software program. For Example, Programmers create programs by writing code that instructs the computer what to do and execute it on a special software designed for it such as turbo C for executing ‘C’ Programs.

Programming:- Programming is the implementation of logic to facilitate the specified computing operations and functionality. Thus, in simple words, we can say that the process of writing a program is called Programming.

What is Software?

A Software is a collection of the program which uses the resources of the Hardware components. A Program is a set of instruction which is designed for a particular task.

Types of Software:

Software is classified into two types, such as System Software and Application Software. For better understanding please have a look at the below image.

Types of Software

System Software:

System Software is a Software designed for a general purpose and does not have any limitations. It is basically designed to provide a platform for other software Systems. So, the Software does the functionality for the hardware devices like printers, mobile, processors, etc. System Software is classified into three types:

  • Operating System: DOS, WINDOWS, LINUX, UNIX
  • System Support: Compiler, Interpreter, Assembler
  • System Development: Linker, Loader, Editor
Application Software: 

Application Software is a program or group of programs designed for end-users i.e. designed for a specific task. Application Software does the functionality for the business-oriented applications. Application Software is classified into two types:

  • Application-Specific: MS OFFICE, Oracle
  • General Purpose Software: Tally
What is a Programming Language?

A  Programming Language is a formal language, which comprises a set of instructions that is used to communicate with the computer. Programming Language is classified into two types:

  • High-Level Programming Language
  • Low-level Programming Language

For better understanding please have a look at the following image.

What is a Programming Language.

High-Level Programming Language: 

The High-Level Programming Languages are syntactically similar to English and easy to understand. High-Level Programming Languages are user-dependent languages. A high-Level Programming Language is a combination of alphabets, digits, and symbols. It is called Micro Statements. By using high-level programming language we are developing user interface applications. Examples: C, C++, VC++, JAVA, C#, Swift, Objective C, D-Language

Low-Level Programming Language:

The Low-Level Programming Languages are the languages that can be easily understandable to the system. These are system-dependent languages. In these two languages are there i.e.

  1. Machine Language
  2. Assembly Language
Machine Language:

Machine Language is the fundamental language for the system it can be directly understandable without any translation. These are machine-oriented languages that use the collection of the binary of 1’s and 0’s.

Assembly Language:

The Assembly Language can be called Symbolic Language. In order to remember easily the program coding be implementing this language. In this language, different types of symbols will be used to design the program. But this assembly code directly not understandable to the system so we require translators.

As a programmer, if we know the programming language then it is not possible to interact with computers because the computer can understand binary code only.

In the above case, recommended to use a translator. As a programmer, if the instruction came in the programming language, the Translator will convert programming language code into binary format and according to every binary instruction, we will get an application or software.

What is a Translator?

Translators are system software that converts programming language code into binary format. The translators are classified into three types:

  1. Compiler
  2. Interpreter
  3. Assembler

For better understanding please have a look at the following image.

Types of Translators


A compiler is a system software that translates High-level programming language code into binary format in a single step except for those lines which are having the error. It checks all kinds of limits, ranges, errors, etc. But its execution time is more and occupies the largest part of the memory.



It is a system software that converts programming language code into binary format step by step i.e. line by line compilation takes place. It reads one statement and then executes it until it proceeds further till all the statements. If an error occurs it will stop the compilation process. As per development-wise interpreter is recommended to use.



It is a system software that converts assembly language instructions into binary formats.


Operating System:

An Operating System (OS) is an interface between a computer user and computer hardware. An Operating system is a software that performs all the basic tasks like file management, memory management, process management, handling input and output, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and Printers.


A loader is a program that loads machine codes of a program into system memory. And a locator is a program that assigns specific memory addresses for each machine code of a program that is to be loaded into system memory.


Usually, a longer program is divided into a number of smaller subprograms called modules. It is easier to develop, test, and debug smaller programs. A linker is a program that links smaller programs to form a single program. The linker links the machine codes of the program. Therefore, it accepts user’s programs after the editor has edited the program, and the compiler has produced machine codes of the program. The Process is called Linking.

In the next article, I am going to give you an overview of the C Programming Language. Here, in this article, I try to give you an overview of Program and Programming Languages and I hope you like this article. I would like to have your feedback. Please post your feedback, question, or comments about this article.

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