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Operators in Java
In this article, I am going to discuss the Operators in Java. Please read our previous article, where we discussed Type Casting in Java with examples. At the end of this article, you will understand what are Java Operators and when and how to use them Java Application with examples.
What are Java Operators?
An operator in Java is a symbol that is used to perform operations. Operators are the constructs that can manipulate the values of the operands. Consider the expression 2 + 3 = 5, here 2 and 3 are operands and + is called operator. In this article, the goal is to get you the expertise required to get started and work with operators in Java.
There as many types of Operators in Java as follows:
 Arithmetic Operator
 Assignment Operator
 Relational Operator
 Logical Operator
 Bitwise Operator
 Unary Operator
 Shift Operator
 Ternary Operator
Arithmetic Operators:
Arithmetic operators are used to performing mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, etc. The following table shows the Types of Arithmetic Operators in Java:
Operator  Symbol  Description  Example 
Addition Operator  +  Adds the left operand with the right operand and returns the result.  int a=10; int b=5; int c = a=b; //15 
Subtraction Operator  –  Subtracts the left operand and right operand and returns the result.  int a=10; int b=5; int c = ab; //5 
Multiplication Operator  *  It multiples the left and right operand and returns the result.  int a=2; int b=3; int c=a*b; //6 
Division Operator  /  Divides the left operand with the right operand and returns the result.  int a=10; int b=5; int c=a/b; //0 
Modulo Operator  %  Divides the left operand with the right operand and returns the remainder.  int a=10; int b=5; int c=a/b; //2 
Sample Program for Arithmetic Operator:
package Demo; public class ArithmeticOperator { public static void main(String[] args) { int A = 10; int B = 20; System.out.println(A + B); System.out.println(A  B); System.out.println(A * B); System.out.println(A / B); System.out.println(A % B); } }
Output:
Assignment Operators in Java:
The Java assignment operator is used to assign the value on its right to the operand on its left. The following table shows the Types of Assignment Operators in Java.
Symbol  Description  Example 
=  Assign the right operand to the left operand. 

+=  Adding left operand with right operand and then assigning it to variable on the left.  int a=5; a += 5; //a=a+5; 
=  subtracting left operand with right operand and then assigning it to variable on the left.  int a=5; a = 5; //a=a5; 
*=  multiplying left operand with right operand and then assigning it to the variable on the left.  int a=5; a *= 5; //a=a*5; 
/=  dividing left operand with right operand and then assigning it to variable on the left.  int a=5; a /= 5; //a=a/5; 
%=  assigning modulo of left operand with right operand and then assigning it to the variable on the left.  int a=5; a /= 5; //a=a/5; 
Sample Program for Assignment Operators:
package Demo; public class AssignmentOperator { public static void main(String[] args) { int a = 10; int b=20; int c; System.out.println(c = a); // Output =10 System.out.println(b += a);// Output=30 System.out.println(b = a);// Output=20 System.out.println(b *= a);// Output=200 System.out.println(b /= a);// Output=2 System.out.println(b %= a);// Output=0 System.out.println(b ^= a);// Output=0 } }
Output :
Relational Operators in Java:
The Relational Operators are also known as Comparison Operators. It determines the relationship between two operands and returns the Boolean results, i.e. true or false after the comparison. The following table shows the Types of Relational Operators in Java.
Operator  Symbol  Description  Example 
Equal to  ==  returns true of the lefthand side is equal to the righthand side.  5==3 is evaluated to false. 
Not Equal to  !=  returns true of the lefthand side is not equal to the righthand side.  5!=3 is evaluated to true. 
Less than  <  returns true of the lefthand side is less than the righthand side.  5<3 is evaluated to false 
Less than or equal to  <=  returns true of the lefthand side is less than or equal to the righthand side.  5<=5 is evaluated to true 
Greater than  >  returns true of the lefthand side is greater than the righthand side.  5>3 is evaluated to true 
Greater than or Equal to  >=  returns true of the lefthand side is greater than or equal to the righthand side.  5>=5 is evaluated to true 
Instance of Operator  instanceOf  It compares an object to a specified type.  String test = “asdf”; boolean result; result = test instanceOf String; //true 
Sample Program for Relational Operator :
package Demo; public class RelationalOperator { public static void main(String[] args) { int a = 10; int b=20; System.out.println(a == b); // returns false because 10 is not equal to 20 System.out.println(a != b); // returns true because 10 is not equal to 20 System.out.println(a > b); // returns false System.out.println(a < b); // returns true System.out.println(a >= b); // returns false System.out.println(a <= b); // returns true } }
Output:
Logical Operators in Java:
The Logical Operators are mainly used in conditional statements and loops for evaluating a condition. They are basically used with binary numbers. The following table shows the types of Logical Operators in Java.
Operator  Symbol  Description  Example 
Logical OR    It returns true if either of the Boolean Expression is true.  false  true is evaluated to true 
Logical AND  &&  It returns true if all the Boolean Expressions are true  false && true is evaluated to false. 
Sample Program for Logical Operators:
package Demo; public class LogicalOperators { public static void main(String[] args) { int a = 10; System.out.println(a<10 & a<20); //returns false System.out.println(a<10  a<20); //returns true System.out.println(!(a<10 & a<20)); //returns true } }
Output:
Java Bitwise Operators:
The Bitwise operator performs bit by bit processing. They can be used with any of the integer types. The following table shows the Types of Bitwise Operators in Java.
Operator  Symbol  Description  Example 
Bitwise OR    It compares corresponding bits of two operands. If either of the bits is 1, it gives 1. If not, it gives 0.  int a=12, b=25; int result = ab; //29 
Bitwise AND  &  It compares corresponding bits of two operands. If either of the bits is 1, it gives 1. If either of the bits is not 1, it gives 0.  int a=12, b=25; int result = a&b; //8 
Bitwise XOR  ^  It compares corresponding bits of two operands. If corresponding bits are different, it gives 1. If corresponding bits are the same, it gives 0.  int a=12, b=25; int result = a^b; //21 
Bitwise Complement  ~  It inverts the bit pattern. It makes every 1 to 0 and every 0 to 1.  int a=35; int result = ~a; //36 
Sample Program for Bitwise Operators:
package Demo; public class BitwiseOperators { public static void main(String[] args) { int a = 58; //111010 int b=13; //1101 System.out.println(a&b); //returns 8 = 1000 System.out.println(ab); //63=111111 System.out.println(a^b); //55=11011 System.out.println(~a); //59 } }
Output:
Unary Operators in Java:
The Unary operators need only one operand. They are used to increment, decrement, or negate a value. The following table shows the Types of Unary Operators in Java.
Operator  Symbol  Description  Example 
Unary minus  –  It is used for negating the values.  int a=5.2; int b = a; //5.2 
Unary plus  +  It is used for giving positive values.  int a=5.2; int b = +a; //5.2 
Increment Operator  ++  It is used for incrementing the value by 1.  int a=5.2; int b = ++a; //6.2 
Decrement Operator  —  It is used for decrementing the value by 1.  int a=5.2; int b = –a; //4.2 
Logical NOT Operator  !  It is used for inverting a Boolean value  boolean a=false; boolean b=!a; //true 
Note: There is basically two types of Increment Operator:
Post Increment Operator:
Value is first used for computing the result and then incremented.
Example:
int b = 10, c = 0;
// c=b then b=b+1
c=b++;
System.out.println(“Value of c (b++) = “ +c);
Output: Value of c (b++) = 10
Pre Increment Operator:
Value is incremented first and then result is computed.
Example:
int a = 20, c = 0;
// a = a+1 and then c = a;
c=++a;
System.out.println(“Value of c (++a) = “ +c);
Output: Value of c (++a) = 21
Note: There are basically two types of Decrement Operator:
Post Decrement Operator:
Value is first used for computing the result and then decremented.
Example:
int e = 40, c = 0;
// c=e then e=e1
c=e–;
System.out.println(“Value of c (e–) = “ +c);
Output: Value of c (e–) = 40
Pre Decrement Operator:
Value is decremented first and then result is computed.
Example:
int d = 20, c = 0;
// d=d1 then c=d
c=–d;
System.out.println(“Value of c (–d) = “ +c);
Output: Value of c (–d) = 19
Sample Program for Unary Operator :
package Demo; public class UnaryOperator { public static void main(String[] args) { int a = 10; boolean b=true; System.out.println(a++); //returns 11 System.out.println(++a); System.out.println(a); System.out.println(a); System.out.println(!b); // returns false } }
Output:
Shift Operator in Java:
The shift operator is used when you’re performing logical bits operations, as opposed to mathematical operations. These operators are used to shift the bits of a number left or right thereby multiplying or dividing the number by two respectively. They can be used when we have to multiply or divide a number by two.
Types of Shift Operator:
Operator  Symbol  Description  Example 
Left Shift Operator  <<  It is used to shift all of the bits in value to the left side of a specified number of times.  10<<2 //10*2^2=10*4=40 
Right Shift Operator  >>  It is used to move left operands value to right by the number of bits specified by the right operand.  10>>2 //10/2^2=10/4=2 
Sample Program for Shift Operators:
package Demo; public class ShiftOperators { public static void main(String[] args) { int a=58; System.out.println(a<<2); //232=11101000 System.out.println(a>>2); //returns 14=1110 System.out.println(a>>>2); //returns 14 } }
Output:
Ternary Operator in Java:
The Ternary Operator is also known as the Conditional Operator. It is the shorthand of the ifelse statement. It is the oneliner replacement of the ifelse statement in Java. It is called ternary because it has three operands. The general format of the ternary operator is: Condition ? if true : if false
The above statement means that if the condition evaluates to true, then execute the statements after the ‘?’ else execute the statements after the ‘:’.
Example:
int a=2;
int b=5;
int c = (a<b)?a:b;
Output: 2
Sample Program for Ternary Operators:
package Demo; public class TernaryOperators { public static void main(String[] args) { int a = 20, b = 10, c = 30, res; res = ((a > b) ? (a > c)? a: c: (b > c)? b: c); System.out.println("Max of three numbers = "+ res); } }
Output:
Java Operator Precedence and Associativity
Java has welldefined rules for specifying the order in which the operators in an expression are evaluated when the expression has several operators. For example, multiplication and division have higher precedence than addition and subtraction. Precedence rules can be overridden by explicit parentheses.
Precedence and associative rules are used when dealing with hybrid equations involving more than one type of operator. In such cases, these rules determine which part of the equation to consider first as there can be many different valuations for the same equation.
Precedence order:
When two operators share an operand the operator with the higher precedence goes first. For example, 1 + 2 * 3 is treated as 1 + (2 * 3), whereas 1 * 2 + 3 is treated as (1 * 2) + 3 since multiplication has a higher precedence than addition.
Associativity:
When an expression has two operators with the same precedence, the expression is evaluated according to its associativity. For example x = y = z = 17 is treated as x = (y = (z = 17)), leaving all three variables with the value 17, since the = operator has righttoleft associativity (and an assignment statement evaluates to the value on the right hand side). On the other hand, 72 / 2 / 3 is treated as (72 / 2) / 3 since the / operator has lefttoright associativity. Some operators are not associative: for example, the expressions (x <= y <= z) and x++– are invalid.
The table below shows all Java operators from highest to lowest precedence, along with their associativity.
Level  Operator  Description  Associativity 
16  [] . ()  access array element access object member parentheses  left to right 
15  ++ —  unary postincrement unary postdecrement  not associative 
14  ++ — + – ! ~  unary preincrement unary predecrement unary plus unary minus unary logical NOT unary bitwise NOT  right to left 
13  () new  cast object creation  right to left 
12  * / %  multiplicative  left to right 
11  + – +  additive string concatenation  left to right 
10  << >> >>>  shift  left to right 
9  < <= > >= instanceof  relational  not associative 
8  == !=  equality  left to right 
7  &  bitwise AND  left to right 
6  ^  bitwise XOR  left to right 
5    bitwise OR  left to right 
4  &&  logical AND  left to right 
3    logical OR  left to right 
2  ?:  ternary  right to left 
1  = += = *= /= %= &= ^= = <<= >>= >>>=  assignment  right to left 
Note: Larger the number means higher the precedence.
In the next article, I am going to discuss Variables in Java with examples. Here, in this article, I try to explain Java Operators in detail. I would like to have your feedback. Please post your feedback, question, or comments about this article.