Initialization Parameters and Parameter Files in Oracle with Examples
In this article, I am going to discuss Initialization Parameters and Parameter Files in Oracle with Examples. Please read our previous article where we discussed Pluggable Database Save State in Oracle. This is one of the most important topics in the database. First, we will learn about Initialization parameters and then learn about parameter files.
Initialization Parameters in Oracle DBA
When we start the database instance, the first step the instance going to do is to read the configuration parameters (initialization parameters) from the initialization parameters file (parameter file). Inside these files we have parameters. If there are any changes in these files the oracle database will not start properly.
It is an engine for the database. The database cannot be up and running fine if these files are not present. The location of the parameter files is most platforms are cd $ORACLE_HOME/DBS. You can be able to view these files but we cannot edit these files.
There are two types of files present to start the instance. We can use one of the following types to start the instance.
Server Parameter File (SP file) in Oracle:
- This is a binary file (we cannot edit this file manually).
- The database can read it and write on it.
- Most of databases use this file to start the database.
- We can use alter system command to change the parameters.
- This file is automatically created by DBCA (Database Configuration Assistant) when you create CDB.
- Default name of SP File: spfile<sid>.ora . For example, if the database name is jaya then the sid is jaya then the SP file will be spfilejaya.ora
Text Initialization Parameter File (P file) in Oracle:
- It is a text file containing parameter values in name/value pairs
- The database can only read this file.
- We need to edit the file manually and restart the database to refresh the parameter values.
- Sample P file name is init.ora
Location of Parameter Files in Oracle:
Open the Linux machine and open the file explorer and click on the computer.
Once you open the computer file system go to the below path.
Once you are at the above location you can P file and the SP file.
You can see both the SP file and P file present in the folder. SP file is present as spfilejayadb.ora. Oracle created these files automatically while creating the database. Please do not try to delete these files or edit these files. We will understand more about this in detail in further articles.
Conclusion: The parameters are the most essential part of the database. These parameters are required to manage the database and start the database and make changes to the database. We will understand more about this in detail in further articles.
In the next article, I am going to discuss Parameter File in Oracle DBA. Here, in this article, I try to explain Initialization Parameters and Parameter Files in Oracle DBA with Examples and I hope you enjoy this Initialization parameter and Parameter Files in Oracle with Examples article.
About the Author: Pranaya Rout
Pranaya Rout has published more than 3,000 articles in his 11-year career. Pranaya Rout has very good experience with Microsoft Technologies, Including C#, VB, ASP.NET MVC, ASP.NET Web API, EF, EF Core, ADO.NET, LINQ, SQL Server, MYSQL, Oracle, ASP.NET Core, Cloud Computing, Microservices, Design Patterns and still learning new technologies.