Token Based Authentication in Web API

Token Based Authentication in Web API

In this article, I am going to discuss how to implement Token Based Authentication in Web API to secure the server resources with an example. Please read our previous article where we discussed how to implement Client-Side HTTP Message Handler with some examples. As part of this article, we are going to discuss the following pointers.

  1. Why do we need Token Based Authentication in Web API?
  2. Advantages of using Token Based Authentication in ASP.NET Web API
  3. How does the Token-Based Authentication work?
  4. Implementing Token-Based Authentication in Web API.
  5. Testing the Token Authentication using Postman.
Why do we need Token Based Authentication in Web API?

The ASP.NET Web API is an ideal framework, provided by Microsoft that, to build Web API’s, i.e. HTTP based services on top of the .NET Framework. Once we develop the services using Web API then these services are going to be consumed by a broad range of clients, such as

  1. Browsers
  2. Mobile applications
  3. Desktop applications
  4. IOTs, etc.

Nowadays, the use of WEB API is increasing in a rapid manner. So as a developer you should know how to develop Web APIs. Only developing Web APIs is not enough if there is no security. So, it also very important for us as a developer to implement security for all types of clients (such as Browsers, Mobile Devices, Desktop applications, and IoTs) who are going to use our Web API services.

The most preferred approach nowadays to secure the Web API resources is by authenticating the users in Web API server by using the signed token (which contains enough information to identify a particular user) which needs to be sent to the server by the client with each and every request. This is called the Token-Based Authentication approach.

How does the Token-Based Authentication work?

In order to understand how the token based authentication works, please have a look at the following diagram.

How does the Token-Based Authentication work

The Token-Based Authentication works as Follows:

  1. The user enters his credentials (i.e. the username and password) into the client (here client means the browser or mobile devices, etc).
  2. The client then sends these credentials (i.e. username and password) to the Authorization Server.
  3. Then the Authorization Server authenticates the client credentials (i.e. username and password) and generates and returns an access token. This Access Token contains enough information to identify a user and also contains the token expiry time.
  4. The client application then includes the Access Token in the Authorization header of the HTTP request to access the restricted resources from the Resource Server until the token is expired.

Note: If this not clear at the moment then don’t worry, we will explain the above mentioned points one by one in detail with example.

Let’s discuss the step by step procedure to implement Token-Based Authentication in Web API and then we will also how to use the token based authentication to access restricted resources using Postman and Fiddler.

Step1: Creating the required database

We are going to use the following UserMaster table in this demo.

Token Based Authentication in Web API

Please use below SQL Script to create and populate the UserMaster table with the required sample data.

CREATE DATABASE SECURITY_DB
GO

USE [SECURITY_DB]

CREATE TABLE UserMaster
(
  UserID INT PRIMARY KEY,
  UserName VARCHAR(50),
  UserPassword VARCHAR(50),
  UserRoles VARCHAR(500),
  UserEmailID VARCHAR(100),
)
GO

INSERT INTO UserMaster VALUES(101, 'Anurag', '123456', 'Admin', 'Anurag@g.com')
INSERT INTO UserMaster VALUES(102, 'Priyanka', 'abcdef', 'User', 'Priyanka@g.com')
INSERT INTO UserMaster VALUES(103, 'Sambit', '123pqr', 'SuperAdmin', 'Sambit@g.com')
INSERT INTO UserMaster VALUES(104, 'Pranaya', 'abc123', 'Admin, User', 'Pranaya@g.com')
GO
Step2: Creating an empty Web API Project with the name TokenAuthenticationWEBAPI

Go to the File menu > create > project > here select “asp.net web application” under web. Provide the application name as TokenAuthenticationWEBAPI and select the project location where you want to create the project. Then click on the OK button as shown in the below image.

Creating an empty Web API Project with the name TokenAuthenticationWEBAPI

Once you click on the OK button, then a new window will open with Name New ASP.NET Web Application for selecting the Project Templates and from this window, you need to select the Empty project template as we are going to do everything from scratch and then checked the MVC and Web API checkbox from Add folder and core references for and then click on the OK button as shown in the below image.

ASP.NET Web API Token Based Authentication

Step3: Add the required references from NuGet packages into your application.

In order to Implement the Token-Based Authentication in ASP.NET Web API, we need to install the followings references from NuGet packages. Later part of this article, we will discuss the use of each the below packages.

  1. Microsoft.Owin.Host.SystemWeb
  2. Microsoft.Owin.Security.OAuth
  3. Microsoft.Owin.Cors
  4. Newtonsoft.json

For adding the above references from NuGet, Go to Solution Explorer > Right Click on the References > Click on Manage NuGet Packages > Search for the Microsoft.Owin.Host.SystemWeb,  Microsoft.Owin.Security.OAuth, Microsoft.Owin.Cors and Newtonsoft.json and install. 

Note: When you install the above packages the dependency references are also automatically installed into your application.

Step4: Creating the ADO.NET Entity Data Model

Here we are going to use the DB First Approach of Entity Framework to create the Entity Data Model against the SECURITY_DB database which we have already created and then select the UserMaster table from the SECURITY_DB database.

Step5: Create a Repository class

Now, you need to create a class with the name UserMasterRepository which will validate the user and also returns the user information. As you can see in the below code, the ValidateUser method takes the username and password as input parameter and then validate this. If the username and password valid then it will return UserMaster object else it will return null. Later we will discuss when and where we will use this method.

namespace TokenAuthenticationInWebAPI.Models
{
    public class UserMasterRepository : IDisposable
    {
        // SECURITY_DBEntities it is your context class
        SECURITY_DBEntities context = new SECURITY_DBEntities();

        //This method is used to check and validate the user credentials
        public UserMaster ValidateUser(string username, string password)
        {
            return context.UserMasters.FirstOrDefault(user =>
            user.UserName.Equals(username, StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase)
            && user.UserPassword == password);
        }

        public void Dispose()
        {
            context.Dispose();
        }
    }
}

Step6: Add a class for validating the user credentials asking for tokens.

Now we need to add a class with the name MyAuthorizationServerProvider into our application. Within that class, we need to write the logic for validating the user credentials and generating the access token.

We need to inherit the MyAuthorizationServerProvider class from OAuthAuthorizationServerProvider class and then need to override the ValidateClientAuthentication and GrantResourceOwnerCredentials method. So, before proceeding and overriding these two methods, let us first understand what exactly these methods are going to perform.

ValidateClientAuthentication Method:

The ValidateClientAuthentication method is used for validating the client application. For the sake of simplicity, we will discuss what is a client and how to validate a client in more details in the next article.

GrantResourceOwnerCredentials Method:

The GrantResourceOwnerCredentials method is used to validate the client credentials (i.e. username and password). If it found the credentials are valid, then only it generates the access token. The client then using this access token can access the authorized resources from the Resource Server.

As we already discussed, the signed access token contains enough information to identify a user. Now the question is how. Let discuss this in details.

First, we need to create an instance of the ClaimsIdentity class and to the constructor of ClaimsIdentity class, we need to pass the authentication type. As we are going to use the Token-Based Authentication, so the Authentication Type is “bearer token”. 

Once we create the ClaimsIdentity instance, then need to add the claims such as Role, Name, and Email, etc to the ClaimsIdentity instance. These are the user information which is going to be included in the signed access token. You can add any number of claims and once you add more claims. the token size will increase.

MyAuthorizationServerProvider

Create a class file with the name MyAuthorizationServerProvider.cs and then copy and paste the following code in it.

using Microsoft.Owin.Security.OAuth;
using System.Security.Claims;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

namespace TokenAuthenticationInWebAPI.Models
{
    public class MyAuthorizationServerProvider : OAuthAuthorizationServerProvider
    {
        public override async Task ValidateClientAuthentication(OAuthValidateClientAuthenticationContext context)
        {
            context.Validated();
        }

        public override async Task GrantResourceOwnerCredentials(OAuthGrantResourceOwnerCredentialsContext context)
        {
            using (UserMasterRepository _repo = new UserMasterRepository())
            {
                var user = _repo.ValidateUser(context.UserName, context.Password);
                if (user == null)
                {
                    context.SetError("invalid_grant", "Provided username and password is incorrect");
                    return;
                }
                var identity = new ClaimsIdentity(context.Options.AuthenticationType);
                identity.AddClaim(new Claim(ClaimTypes.Role, user.UserRoles));
                identity.AddClaim(new Claim(ClaimTypes.Name, user.UserName));
                identity.AddClaim(new Claim("Email", user.UserEmailID));

                context.Validated(identity);
            }
        }
    }
}
Step7: Add the OWINStartup class.

Now we need to add the OWINStartup class where we will configure the OAuth Authorization Server. This is going to be our authorization server.

To do so, go to the Solution Explorer > Right Click on Project Name form the Solution Explorer > Add > New Item > Select OWIN Startup class > Enter the class name as Startup.cs > and then click on the Add button as shown in the below image.

Token Based Authentication in ASP.NET Web API

Once you created the Owin Startup class, copy and paste the below code in it.

using System;
using Microsoft.Owin;
using Owin;
using TokenAuthenticationInWebAPI.Models;
using Microsoft.Owin.Security.OAuth;
using System.Web.Http;

[assembly: OwinStartup(typeof(TokenAuthenticationInWebAPI.App_Start.Startup))]

namespace TokenAuthenticationInWebAPI.App_Start
{
    // In this class we will Configure the OAuth Authorization Server.
    public class Startup
    {
        public void Configuration(IAppBuilder app)
        {
            // Enable CORS (cross origin resource sharing) for making request using browser from different domains
            app.UseCors(Microsoft.Owin.Cors.CorsOptions.AllowAll);
            
            OAuthAuthorizationServerOptions options = new OAuthAuthorizationServerOptions
            {
                AllowInsecureHttp = true,

                //The Path For generating the Toekn
                TokenEndpointPath = new PathString("/token"),

                //Setting the Token Expired Time (24 hours)
                AccessTokenExpireTimeSpan = TimeSpan.FromDays(1),

                //MyAuthorizationServerProvider class will validate the user credentials
                Provider = new MyAuthorizationServerProvider()
            };

            //Token Generations
            app.UseOAuthAuthorizationServer(options);
            app.UseOAuthBearerAuthentication(new OAuthBearerAuthenticationOptions());
            
            HttpConfiguration config = new HttpConfiguration();
            WebApiConfig.Register(config);
        }
    }
}
Understanding the Owin Startup class code:

Here we created a new instance of the OAuthAuthorizationServerOptions class and then set its options as follows:

  1. Here, we set the path for generating the tokens ashttp://localhost:portnumber/token”. Later we will see how to issue an HTTP Post request to generate the access token.
  2. We have specified the expiry time for the access token as 24 hours. So if the user tried to use the same access token after 24 hours from the issue time, then this request will be rejected and HTTP status code 401 will be returned.
  3. We also specified the implementation on how to validate the client credentials for users asking for the access tokens in the custom class named MyAuthorizationServerProvider.

Finally, we passed the options to the extension method UseOAuthAuthorizationServer which will add the authentication middleware to the pipeline.

Step8: Add a Web API Controller. 

Now we need to create Web API resources. To do so, add an empty Web API Controller, where we will add some action methods so that we can check the Token-Based Authentication is working fine or not.

Go to Solution Explorer > Right click on the Controllers folder > Add > Controller > Select WEB API 2 Controller – Empty > Click on the Add button. > Enter the controller name as TestController.cs > finally click on the Add button which will create the TestController.

Once you created the TestController, then copy and paste the following code.

using System.Linq;
using System.Security.Claims;
using System.Web.Http;

namespace TokenAuthenticationInWebAPI.Controllers
{
    public class TestController : ApiController
    {
        //This resource is For all types of role
        [Authorize(Roles = "SuperAdmin, Admin, User")]
        [HttpGet]
        [Route("api/test/resource1")]
        public IHttpActionResult GetResource1()
        {
            var identity = (ClaimsIdentity)User.Identity;
            return Ok("Hello: " + identity.Name);
        }

        //This resource is only For Admin and SuperAdmin role
        [Authorize(Roles = "SuperAdmin, Admin")]
        [HttpGet]
        [Route("api/test/resource2")]
        public IHttpActionResult GetResource2()
        {
            var identity = (ClaimsIdentity)User.Identity;            
            var Email = identity.Claims
                      .FirstOrDefault(c => c.Type == "Email").Value;

            var UserName = identity.Name;
            
            return Ok("Hello " + UserName + ", Your Email ID is :" + Email);
        }

        //This resource is only For SuperAdmin role
        [Authorize(Roles = "SuperAdmin")]
        [HttpGet]
        [Route("api/test/resource3")]
        public IHttpActionResult GetResource3()
        {
            var identity = (ClaimsIdentity)User.Identity;
            var roles = identity.Claims
                        .Where(c => c.Type == ClaimTypes.Role)
                        .Select(c => c.Value);
            return Ok("Hello " + identity.Name + "Your Role(s) are: " + string.Join(",", roles.ToList()));
        }
    }
}

Here, in the above controller, we have created three resources as follows,

  1. /api/test/resource1 This resource can be accessed by all three types of roles such as Admin, SuperAdmin, and User
  2. /api/test/resource2This resource can be accessed by the users who are having the roles Admin and SuperAdmin
  3. /api/test/resource3This resource can be accessed only by the users who are having the role SuperAdmin

To test this we are going to use a client tool called Postman. First, you need to run your Web API application. If you are new to Postman then please read the following where we discussed how to use Postman to test Web API rest services.

How to use Postman to test Rest Services?

Step9: Testing the Token Authentication

Test1: Without Access Token, try to make a request for following URI

http://localhost:xxxxx/api/test/resource1

You need to change the port number. You have to provide the port number where your Web API application is running.

Securing Web API Resouces Using Token-Based Authentication

As expected you got 401 unauthorized responses

Test2: Try to create the Access token with invalid credentials

As we don’t have any user with the name test, so let’s try to create the Access Token for the test user. Select the method type as POST (1), enter the URL as http://localhost:PortNumber/token (2) and then click on body tab (3) and then select x-www-form-urlencoded (4) and then enter 3 parameters (5)

  1. username (value : test)
  2. password (value: test)
  3. grant_type (value: password)

And then click on the Send button (6).

Securing Web API Resouces Using Token-Based Authentication

Once you click on the send button, you will get status as 400 Bad Request as expected and it also tells that in the error description that the provided username and password are incorrect. Let’s generate the access token with valid credentials for the user Anurag whose password us 123456 as shown in the below image.

Authentication in Web API

As you can see when you click on the send button, you will get status code 200 Ok along with you will get the access token which contains enough information to identify the user Anurag. You can also see in the Response section that the token type is Bearer and the token expire time in seconds.

Test3: Access restricted resources with the access token.

/api/test/resource2

First copy the access token that we just generated in the previous example that we are going to use the token as shown below.

Authorization: Bearer Access_Token(value)

Authentication in Web API

You can see that, when you click on the Send button, you will get 200 Ok as expected because the resource /api/test/resource2 has been accessed by the Roles Admin and SuperAdmin and here the user Anurag has the Role Admin so, we get the above response.

But the above user cannot access the resource /api/test/resource3 because the resource3 can only be accessed by the user whose role is SuperAdmin. Let’s prove this.

Web API Token-Based Authentication

As you can see, the response is 401 unauthorized. But you generate the token for the user whose Role is SuperAdmin, then you can access this resource.

Let’s have a look at the MyAuthorizationServiceProvider class

Web API Token-Based Authentication

The first method i.e. ValidateClientAuthentication method is responsible for validating the Client, in this example, we assume that we have only one client so we’ll always return that it is validated successfully. But in real-time you may have multiple clients and you need to validate the clients. So In the next article, we will discuss how to use the ValidateClientAuthentication method to validate the client.

Advantages of using Token Based Authentication in ASP.NET Web API:
Scalability of Servers: 

The token which is sent to the server by the client is self-contained means it holds enough data to identify the user needed for authentication. As a result, you can add easily more servers to your web farm, there is no dependent on shared session stores.

Loosely Coupling: 

The client application is not tied or coupled with any specific authentication mechanism. The token is generated, validated and perform the authentication are done by the server only.

Mobile-Friendly:

The Cookies and browsers like each other, but handling the cookies on native platforms like Android, iOS, Windows Phone is not an easy task. The token-based approach simplifies this a lot.

In the next article, I am going to discuss Client Validation Using Basic Authentication in Web API with an example. In this article, I try to explain how to implement Token Based Authentication in Web API with an example. I hope you enjoy this article. 

36 thoughts on “Token Based Authentication in Web API”

  1. blank

    Thanks a lot Sir,
    This article is great and i am very much happy to recommend this to my friends . Such complex thing has been explained in such simple words. I wish my best wishes to the team and it has been great learning experience.
    Please keep growing this website.

    With Regards,
    Abhishek Singh

  2. blank

    Thank you very much, but i think there is a small issue must be solved in the code above because i faced error with authorized by roles if i have more than one roles for the user
    so i modified the code at that section to be :

    foreach (var item in user.Roles.Split(‘,’))
    {
    identity.AddClaim(new Claim(ClaimTypes.Role, item.Trim()));
    }

    hope this will solve the issue at above code for the best practice to programmers

    Many thanks for you
    Best Regards

  3. blank

    Basic Question though..One of the main disadvantage with Basic authentication is Credentials are sent as plain text in each and every request. However in token authentication also, we sending the very first request in plain text.

    1. blank

      SECURITY_DBEntities is the context class name. While interacting with database using entity framework you need to provide the context as SECURITY_DBEntities.

  4. blank

    i have sender where token based system applied
    means admin give you token
    we will add it in the sender script where token.txt
    sender will work..!!

    i want to know how to create that types of token
    and we can use this method and second it will work on localhost

  5. blank

    When I run the API using Visual Studio 2019 by pressing F5 on the keyboard, I always get an error stating 404 not found.
    Am I missing anything here?

  6. blank

    i get errors when i add these to configure method on startup

    app.UseOAuthAuthorizationServer(options);
    app.UseOAuthBearerAuthentication(new OAuthBearerAuthenticationOptions());

    HttpConfiguration config =new HttpConfiguration() ;
    WebApiConfig.Register();

    the error is :

    ‘IApplicationBuilder’ does not contain a definition for ‘UseOAuthAuthorizationServer’ and the best extension method overload ‘OAuthAuthorizationServerExtensions.UseOAuthAuthorizationServer(IAppBuilder, OAuthAuthorizationServerOptions)’ requires a receiver of type ‘IAppBuilder’

  7. blank

    public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IHostingEnvironment env, mydbContext db, IAppBuilder ap)
    {

    if (env.IsDevelopment())
    {
    app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();
    }
    else
    {
    app.UseExceptionHandler(“/Error”);
    // The default HSTS value is 30 days. You may want to change this for production scenarios, see https://aka.ms/aspnetcore-hsts.
    app.UseHsts();
    }

    app.UseHttpsRedirection();
    app.UseStaticFiles();
    app.UseSpaStaticFiles();

    app.UseMvc(routes =>
    {
    routes.MapRoute(
    name: “default”,
    template: “{controller}/{action=Index}/{id?}”);
    });

    app.UseSpa(spa =>
    {
    // To learn more about options for serving an Angular SPA from ASP.NET Core,
    // see https://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=864501

    spa.Options.SourcePath = “AppFrontEnd”;

    if (env.IsDevelopment())
    {
    //spa.UseAngularCliServer(npmScript: “start”);
    spa.UseProxyToSpaDevelopmentServer(“http://localhost:4200”);
    }
    });

    // Enable CORS (cross origin resource sharing) for making request using browser from different domains
    ap.UseCors(Microsoft.Owin.Cors.CorsOptions.AllowAll);

    OAuthAuthorizationServerOptions options = new OAuthAuthorizationServerOptions
    {
    AllowInsecureHttp = true,
    //The Path For generating the Toekn
    TokenEndpointPath = new PathString(“/token”),
    //Setting the Token Expired Time ()
    AccessTokenExpireTimeSpan = TimeSpan.FromMinutes(5),
    //MyAuthorizationServerProvider class will validate the user credentials
    Provider = new MyAuthorizationServerProvider()
    };
    //Token Generations
    ap.UseOAuthAuthorizationServer(options);
    ap.UseOAuthBearerAuthentication(new OAuthBearerAuthenticationOptions());

    WebApiConfig.Register(new HttpConfiguration());

    }

    when i add these the above errors was desapear but is that true ?
    but get error in these line
    WebApiConfig.Register(new HttpConfiguration());
    im using dotnetcore 2.2 by dotnet angular project

  8. blank

    As far as I saw you didn’t say anything about packages and why you used them. Why we have to use them? What happens if we don’t use it?

      1. blank

        @LAWRAOKE ,
        I faced this… then solved by using Key: grant_type and Value: password
        value is case sensitive i guess, so it must be “password” though your password filed can be like PassWord. 🙂

  9. blank

    Its very interesting explanatory,
    clean!
    i’m facing some error 400 when i’m trying to use angular 9, but with postman its responding positive.
    can you help?

  10. blank
    Luciano Dal Monte

    Dears,
    starting from this great and very well explained example and the others of your beatiful site I was able to implement some robust webapis that use token authentication: really, I have to thank you a lot for this.
    Now, I should implement a new webapi to put together an existent web project asp.net core razor pages that uses Asp.net identity and the object SignInManager of Asp.Net Core to verify user identity. Is it possible to re-implement your example above together with Asp.net Identity and SignInManager object to get the user identity, verify it and if correct get the token?
    Lucius

  11. blank

    Thank you!
    Interesting this tutorial.
    The question I ask myself is:
    Where is the secret to sign the token sent by the user

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