ADO.NET Core Transactions

ADO.NET Core Transactions with Examples

In this article, I will discuss How to Implement Transactions in ADO.NET Core with Examples. Please read our previous article discussing How to Perform CRUD Operations using ADO.NET Core with Stored Procedures. At the end of this article, you will understand the following pointers:

  1. What is a Transaction in a Database?
  2. Why do we need Database Transactions?
  3. ADO.NET Core Transactions.
  4. How to use Transaction in ADO.NET Core?
  5. Order Booking Application using ADO.NET Core Transaction
  6. ADO.NET Core with Asynchronous Transaction.
  7. When Should We Use Transactions in ADO.NET Core?
  8. Disadvantages of ADO.NET Core Transaction.

What is a Transaction in a Database?

A transaction in the context of a database is a sequence of one or more operations performed as a single logical unit of work that must be either entirely completed or aborted. Transactions are essential for maintaining the integrity and consistency of a database. They are used to ensure that a database remains in a consistent state even in the case of system failures or concurrent access by multiple users.

The key properties of transactions are often summarized by the acronym ACID, which stands for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability:

  • Atomicity: This property ensures that a transaction is treated as a single unit, which either succeeds completely or fails completely. If any part of the transaction fails, the entire transaction is rolled back, and the database is returned to its state before the transaction begins.
  • Consistency: Transactions must transition the database from one consistent state to another consistent state. This means that all data integrity constraints must be maintained across the transaction. For instance, if a rule exists that the balance of an account should never be negative, a transaction moving funds from one account to another must ensure this rule is followed.
  • Isolation: This property ensures that transactions are executed in isolation from each other. Changes made in one transaction should not be visible to other transactions until the transaction is committed. This prevents data inconsistencies due to concurrent modifications.
  • Durability: Once a transaction has been committed, its changes are permanent, even in the event of a system failure. This is usually achieved by logging transactions and their changes to non-volatile storage.

Why do we need Database Transactions?

Database transactions are essential for ensuring data integrity and consistency in database systems. They are used to manage and safeguard the data as it is manipulated through various operations, such as creating, reading, updating, or deleting records. Transactions are particularly vital in environments where multiple database operations need to occur in an atomic, consistent, isolated, and durable (ACID) manner. Let us understand why we need a Transaction with a fund transfer example.

Scenario: Transferring Funds from Account A to Account B

Imagine you are transferring $100 from Account A to Account B. This operation involves two main steps:

  • Debit $100 from Account A: The balance of Account A is decreased by $100.
  • Credit $100 to Account B: The balance of Account B is increased by $100.
Without Database Transactions

Without using a database transaction, if the system fails after debiting Account A but before crediting Account B, the $100 would effectively disappear from the system. This would result in data inconsistency, where the total amount across accounts does not match the system’s total expected value, leading to potential financial discrepancies and loss of trust.

With Database Transactions

When wrapped in a database transaction, both the debit and credit operations are treated as a single atomic operation. This means both steps must be completed successfully for the transaction to be committed; if any step fails, the transaction is rolled back, and the system is returned to its initial state before the transaction begins. This approach ensures:

  • Atomicity: The entire fund transfer operation is treated as a single unit of work. It either completes in its entirety or not at all, preventing partial updates.
  • Consistency: The transaction ensures that the database transitions from one consistent state to another, maintaining all balance invariants. The sum of all account balances remains constant (assuming no interest or fees).
  • Isolation: If multiple transactions are occurring simultaneously (e.g., other transfers), isolation ensures that each transaction is unaware of other concurrent transactions, preventing “dirty reads” or incorrect balances during the transfer process.
  • Durability: Once the transaction is completed and committed, the changes are permanent, ensuring that the fund transfer persists even in the case of a system failure shortly after the operation.

ADO.NET Core Transactions

ADO.NET Core Transactions refer to the mechanism provided by ADO.NET in the .NET Core framework for managing database operations in a coherent and reliable way, ensuring data integrity and consistency. Transactions allow multiple database operations to be executed as a single unit of work, such that either all operations succeed or none do, maintaining the atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability (ACID) properties of a database.

In ADO.NET Core, transactions are typically implemented using the DbTransaction class or the TransactionScope class:

  • DbTransaction: This class is used to explicitly begin, commit, or roll back transactions on a database connection. It’s often used when you need fine-grained control over transactions with specific database commands.
  • TransactionScope: This class provides a more straightforward way to declare transactional code blocks, automatically managing the transaction’s lifecycle. It is particularly useful for managing transactions across multiple database connections or different types of data stores.

How to use Transaction in ADO.NET Core?

Implementing transactions in ADO.NET Core involves a series of steps that allow you to execute multiple operations as a single unit of work, ensuring that all operations either complete successfully or fail together. This ensures the integrity of your data. Here is how to use transactions in ADO.NET Core:

Create a Connection

First, you need to establish a connection to your database. This involves creating an instance of SqlConnection (for SQL Server) or a similar connection object for other databases and opening the connection as follows.

var connectionString = "YourConnectionStringHere";
using (var connection = new SqlConnection(connectionString))
{
    connection.Open();
    // Operations within the transaction
}
Begin a Transaction

Once the connection is open, you can begin a transaction by calling the BeginTransaction method on your connection object. This returns a transaction object, which is used to manage the transaction.

using (var transaction = connection.BeginTransaction())
{
    // Operations within the transaction
}
Execute Commands within the Transaction

With the transaction started you can execute SQL commands (e.g., INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) within this transaction by setting the Transaction property of the SqlCommand object. Ensure that all operations are enclosed within try-catch blocks to handle exceptions.

try
{
    using var command = connection.CreateCommand();
    command.Transaction = transaction;
    command.CommandText = "Your SQL Command Here";
    // Execute the command, e.g., for a non-query command:
    command.ExecuteNonQuery();

    // Repeat as necessary for other commands within the transaction
}
catch (Exception ex)
{
    // Handle exceptions, possibly by logging and rolling back the transaction
    transaction.Rollback();
    throw;
}
Commit the Transaction

If all operations within the transaction are successful, commit the transaction to make all changes permanent.

transaction.Commit();

Create a Database and Tables with Sample Data to Understand the Transaction:

Please execute the below SQL Statements in the SQL Server database to create the OrderDB and Customer, Products, Order, OrderItem, and Payment tables, as well as populate the Customer and Products tables with some sample data. The Orders, OrderItem, and Payment tables will be populated through the application using Transaction.

CREATE DATABASE OrderDB;
GO

USE OrderDB;
GO

CREATE TABLE Customer (
    CustomerID INT PRIMARY KEY IDENTITY(1,1),
    Name VARCHAR(100),
    Email VARCHAR(100),
    Address VARCHAR(255)
);

CREATE TABLE Products (
    ProductID INT PRIMARY KEY IDENTITY(1,1),
    Name VARCHAR(100),
    Price DECIMAL(10,2),
 Quantity INT
);

CREATE TABLE Orders (
    OrderID INT PRIMARY KEY IDENTITY(1,1),
    CustomerID INT,
    OrderDate DATETIME,
    TotalAmount DECIMAL(10,2),
    FOREIGN KEY (CustomerID) REFERENCES Customer(CustomerID)
);

CREATE TABLE OrderItem (
    OrderItemID INT PRIMARY KEY IDENTITY(1,1),
    OrderID INT,
    ProductID INT,
    Quantity INT,
    FOREIGN KEY (OrderID) REFERENCES Orders(OrderID),
    FOREIGN KEY (ProductID) REFERENCES Products(ProductID)
);

CREATE TABLE Payment (
    PaymentID INT PRIMARY KEY IDENTITY(1,1),
    OrderID INT,
    PaymentDate DATETIME,
    Amount DECIMAL(10,2),
    FOREIGN KEY (OrderID) REFERENCES Orders(OrderID)
);

-- Insert Customers
INSERT INTO Customer (Name, Email, Address) VALUES 
('Pranaya Rout', 'Pranaya.Rout@Example.com', '123 BBSR Odisha'),
('Hina Sharma', 'Hina.Sharma@Example.com', '456 CTC Odisha');

-- Insert Products
INSERT INTO Products (Name, Price, Quantity) VALUES 
('Laptop', 1200.00, 100),
('Desktop', 800.00, 120);

-- The Orders, OrderItem, and Payment tables will be populated through the application using Transaction.

Implement Order Booking Operation Example using ADO.NET Core Transaction:

Here is an example demonstrating how you might implement the order booking operation using ADO.NET Core Transaction. Please modify the Program class as follows. The following code is self-explanated, so please go through the comment lines for a better understanding.

using Microsoft.Data.SqlClient;
namespace ADODOTNETCoreDemo
{
    internal class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            try
            {
                string connectionString = "Server=LAPTOP-6P5NK25R\\SQLSERVER2022DEV;Database=OrderDB;Trusted_Connection=True;TrustServerCertificate=True;";

                using (SqlConnection connection = new SqlConnection(connectionString))
                {
                    //Open the Connection
                    connection.Open();

                    //Begin the Transaction
                    SqlTransaction transaction = connection.BeginTransaction();

                    try
                    {
                        // Example ProductID and CustomerID
                        int customerId = 1;
                        int productId = 1;
                        int orderQuantity = 2;

                        // Assume we know the price, in a real scenario we'd fetch it from the database
                        decimal productPrice = 1200.00M;
                        decimal totalAmount = productPrice * orderQuantity;

                        // Check if enough product is in stock

                        //Attaching the Transaction Object with the Command Object
                        SqlCommand checkStockCmd = new SqlCommand("SELECT Quantity FROM Products WHERE ProductID = @ProductID", connection, transaction);
                        checkStockCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@ProductID", productId);
                        int currentStock = (int)checkStockCmd.ExecuteScalar();

                        if (currentStock < orderQuantity)
                        {
                            throw new Exception("Enough Stock.");
                        }
                        Console.WriteLine("Stock Available");

                        // Insert Order
                        SqlCommand insertOrderCmd = new SqlCommand("INSERT INTO Orders (CustomerID, OrderDate, TotalAmount) OUTPUT INSERTED.OrderID VALUES (@CustomerId, @OrderDate, @TotalAmount)", connection, transaction);
                        insertOrderCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@CustomerId", customerId);
                        insertOrderCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@OrderDate", DateTime.Now);
                        insertOrderCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@TotalAmount", totalAmount);

                        int orderId = (int)insertOrderCmd.ExecuteScalar();
                        Console.WriteLine("Order Inserted  into the Orders table");

                        // Insert OrderItem
                        SqlCommand insertOrderItemCmd = new SqlCommand("INSERT INTO OrderItem (OrderID, ProductID, Quantity) VALUES (@OrderId, @ProductID, @Quantity)", connection, transaction);
                        insertOrderItemCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@OrderId", orderId);
                        insertOrderItemCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@ProductID", productId);
                        insertOrderItemCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@Quantity", orderQuantity);

                        insertOrderItemCmd.ExecuteNonQuery();
                        Console.WriteLine("Order Items Inserted into the OrderItem table");

                        // Update Product Quantity
                        SqlCommand updateProductCmd = new SqlCommand("UPDATE Products SET Quantity = Quantity - @Quantity WHERE ProductID = @ProductID", connection, transaction);
                        updateProductCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@Quantity", orderQuantity);
                        updateProductCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@ProductID", productId);

                        updateProductCmd.ExecuteNonQuery();
                        Console.WriteLine("Products Quantity Updated in the Products table");

                        // Insert Payment
                        SqlCommand insertPaymentCmd = new SqlCommand("INSERT INTO Payment (OrderID, PaymentDate, Amount) VALUES (@OrderId, @PaymentDate, @Amount)", connection, transaction);
                        insertPaymentCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@OrderId", orderId);
                        insertPaymentCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@PaymentDate", DateTime.Now);
                        insertPaymentCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@Amount", totalAmount);

                        insertPaymentCmd.ExecuteNonQuery();
                        Console.WriteLine("Payment Processed and Inserted into the Payment Table");

                        // Commit Transaction
                        transaction.Commit();
                        Console.WriteLine("Order Processed Successfully.");
                    }
                    catch (Exception ex)
                    {
                        //Rollback the Transaction
                        transaction.Rollback();
                        Console.WriteLine($"Transaction Rollback, Exception Message: {ex.Message}");
                    }
                }
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                Console.WriteLine($"Something went wrong: {ex.Message}");
            }
        }
    }
}
Output:

How to Implement Transactions in ADO.NET Core with Examples

Now, if you verify the database, then you will see the Product quantity must be reduced by 2, and the corresponding data must be inserted into the Orders, OrderItem, and Payment tables as shown in the below image:

How to Implement Transactions in ADO.NET Core with Examples

Verifying Data Consistency:

Let us modify the example code as follows. In the following code, we deliberately introduce a change that would crash the application at runtime while executing the INSERT INTO Payment statement. Here, we have renamed the table name from Payment to MyPayment, which does not exist in the database.

In this case, the first two INSERT Statement and the UPDATE statement are executed, then it will try to execute the third INSERT statement, which will throw an exception and, in that case, that runtime exception is going to be handled by the Catch block and inside the catch block, we are calling the Rollback method which will rollback everything which is executed as part of the transaction.

using Microsoft.Data.SqlClient;
namespace ADODOTNETCoreDemo
{
    internal class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            try
            {
                string connectionString = "Server=LAPTOP-6P5NK25R\\SQLSERVER2022DEV;Database=OrderDB;Trusted_Connection=True;TrustServerCertificate=True;";

                using (SqlConnection connection = new SqlConnection(connectionString))
                {
                    //Open the Connection
                    connection.Open();

                    //Begin the Transaction
                    SqlTransaction transaction = connection.BeginTransaction();

                    try
                    {
                        // Example ProductID and CustomerID
                        int customerId = 1;
                        int productId = 1; 
                        int orderQuantity = 2;

                        // Assume we know the price, in a real scenario we'd fetch it from the database
                        decimal productPrice = 1200.00M; 
                        decimal totalAmount = productPrice * orderQuantity;

                        // Check if enough product is in stock

                        //Attaching the Transaction Object with the Command Object
                        SqlCommand checkStockCmd = new SqlCommand("SELECT Quantity FROM Products WHERE ProductID = @ProductID", connection, transaction);
                        checkStockCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@ProductID", productId);
                        int currentStock = (int)checkStockCmd.ExecuteScalar();

                        if (currentStock < orderQuantity)
                        {
                            throw new Exception("Enough Stock.");
                        }
                        Console.WriteLine("Stock Available");

                        // Insert Order
                        SqlCommand insertOrderCmd = new SqlCommand("INSERT INTO Orders (CustomerID, OrderDate, TotalAmount) OUTPUT INSERTED.OrderID VALUES (@CustomerId, @OrderDate, @TotalAmount)", connection, transaction);
                        insertOrderCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@CustomerId", customerId);
                        insertOrderCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@OrderDate", DateTime.Now);
                        insertOrderCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@TotalAmount", totalAmount);

                        int orderId = (int)insertOrderCmd.ExecuteScalar();
                        Console.WriteLine("Order Inserted  into the Orders table");

                        // Insert OrderItem
                        SqlCommand insertOrderItemCmd = new SqlCommand("INSERT INTO OrderItem (OrderID, ProductID, Quantity) VALUES (@OrderId, @ProductID, @Quantity)", connection, transaction);
                        insertOrderItemCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@OrderId", orderId);
                        insertOrderItemCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@ProductID", productId);
                        insertOrderItemCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@Quantity", orderQuantity);

                        insertOrderItemCmd.ExecuteNonQuery();
                        Console.WriteLine("Order Items Inserted into the OrderItem table");

                        // Update Product Quantity
                        SqlCommand updateProductCmd = new SqlCommand("UPDATE Products SET Quantity = Quantity - @Quantity WHERE ProductID = @ProductID", connection, transaction);
                        updateProductCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@Quantity", orderQuantity);
                        updateProductCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@ProductID", productId);

                        updateProductCmd.ExecuteNonQuery();
                        Console.WriteLine("Products Quantity Updated in the Products table");

                        // Insert Payment
                        // Renaming the table name to MyPayment to Throw some exception
                        SqlCommand insertPaymentCmd = new SqlCommand("INSERT INTO MyPayment (OrderID, PaymentDate, Amount) VALUES (@OrderId, @PaymentDate, @Amount)", connection, transaction);
                        insertPaymentCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@OrderId", orderId);
                        insertPaymentCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@PaymentDate", DateTime.Now);
                        insertPaymentCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@Amount", totalAmount);

                        insertPaymentCmd.ExecuteNonQuery();
                        Console.WriteLine("Payment Processed and Inserted into the Payment Table");

                        // Commit Transaction
                        transaction.Commit();
                        Console.WriteLine("Order Processed Successfully.");
                    }
                    catch (Exception ex)
                    {
                        //Rollback the Transaction
                        transaction.Rollback();
                        Console.WriteLine($"Transaction Rollback, Exception Message: {ex.Message}");
                    }
                }
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                Console.WriteLine($"Something went wrong: {ex.Message}");
            }
        }
    }
}

When you run the above code, you will get the following output:

ADO.NET Core Transactions

Here, you can see that after the product quantity is updated, it rolls back the transaction. Now, if you verify the database, then you will see that whatever data is updated or inserted should be rolled back, as shown in the image below. Here, you can see there are no changes in the database, maintaining data consistency.

ADO.NET Core with Asynchronous Transaction

Important Points:
  • Always use try-catch blocks around transactional code to catch any exceptions and roll back the transaction if necessary.
  • Ensure that the transaction is committed only after all operations within it have succeeded. If an exception occurs, the transaction should be rolled back to avoid partial updates.
  • Close or dispose of the connection and transaction objects properly to free resources. The using statement in C# is handy for this purpose, as it automatically disposes of objects even if an exception occurs.
  • Ensure that connections to the database are properly opened and closed to avoid resource leaks.
  • For more complex scenarios or when needing to coordinate transactions across multiple resources, consider using TransactionScope to manage transactions at a higher level.

ADO.NET Core with Asynchronous Transaction:

Let us rewrite the previous example using asynchronous methods in ADO.NET Core, we will use the async and await keywords available in C#. This approach allows the program to perform database operations without blocking the main thread, improving the responsiveness of the application, especially in environments with high-latency database connections or when executing long-running queries. The following Key Changes we need to do for Asynchronous Operations:

  • Async Main Method: The Main method is marked with async and returns Task to allow asynchronous operations.
  • Open Connection Asynchronously: OpenAsync is used to open the database connection asynchronously.
  • Begin Transaction Asynchronously: BeginTransactionAsync starts a transaction asynchronously.
  • Execute Commands Asynchronously: ExecuteScalarAsync, ExecuteNonQueryAsync, and other command execution methods are used with await to perform database operations without blocking the thread.
  • Commit and Rollback Asynchronously: Transactions are committed or rolled back using CommitAsync and RollbackAsync, respectively.

So, modify the Program class as follows. The following example shows how to implement ADO.NET Core Asynchronous Transaction.

using Microsoft.Data.SqlClient;
namespace ADODOTNETCoreDemo
{
    internal class Program
    {
        static async Task Main(string[] args)
        {
            try
            {
                string connectionString = "Server=LAPTOP-6P5NK25R\\SQLSERVER2022DEV;Database=OrderDB;Trusted_Connection=True;TrustServerCertificate=True;";

                using (SqlConnection connection = new SqlConnection(connectionString))
                {
                    //Open the Connection
                    await connection.OpenAsync();

                    //Begin the Transaction
                    SqlTransaction transaction = (SqlTransaction)await connection.BeginTransactionAsync();

                    try
                    {
                        // Example ProductID and CustomerID
                        int customerId = 1;
                        int productId = 1;
                        int orderQuantity = 2;

                        // Assume we know the price, in a real scenario we'd fetch it from the database
                        decimal productPrice = 1200.00M;
                        decimal totalAmount = productPrice * orderQuantity;

                        // Check if enough product is in stock

                        //Attaching the Transaction Object with the Command Object
                        SqlCommand checkStockCmd = new SqlCommand("SELECT Quantity FROM Products WHERE ProductID = @ProductID", connection, transaction);
                        checkStockCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@ProductID", productId);
                        int currentStock = (int)await checkStockCmd.ExecuteScalarAsync();

                        if (currentStock < orderQuantity)
                        {
                            throw new Exception("Enough Stock.");
                        }
                        Console.WriteLine("Stock Available");

                        // Insert Order
                        SqlCommand insertOrderCmd = new SqlCommand("INSERT INTO Orders (CustomerID, OrderDate, TotalAmount) OUTPUT INSERTED.OrderID VALUES (@CustomerId, @OrderDate, @TotalAmount)", connection, transaction);
                        insertOrderCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@CustomerId", customerId);
                        insertOrderCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@OrderDate", DateTime.Now);
                        insertOrderCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@TotalAmount", totalAmount);

                        int orderId = (int)await insertOrderCmd.ExecuteScalarAsync();
                        Console.WriteLine("Order Inserted  into the Orders table");

                        // Insert OrderItem
                        SqlCommand insertOrderItemCmd = new SqlCommand("INSERT INTO OrderItem (OrderID, ProductID, Quantity) VALUES (@OrderId, @ProductID, @Quantity)", connection, transaction);
                        insertOrderItemCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@OrderId", orderId);
                        insertOrderItemCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@ProductID", productId);
                        insertOrderItemCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@Quantity", orderQuantity);

                        await insertOrderItemCmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();
                        Console.WriteLine("Order Items Inserted into the OrderItem table");

                        // Update Product Quantity
                        SqlCommand updateProductCmd = new SqlCommand("UPDATE Products SET Quantity = Quantity - @Quantity WHERE ProductID = @ProductID", connection, transaction);
                        updateProductCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@Quantity", orderQuantity);
                        updateProductCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@ProductID", productId);

                        await updateProductCmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();
                        Console.WriteLine("Products Quantity Updated in the Products table");

                        // Insert Payment
                        SqlCommand insertPaymentCmd = new SqlCommand("INSERT INTO Payment (OrderID, PaymentDate, Amount) VALUES (@OrderId, @PaymentDate, @Amount)", connection, transaction);
                        insertPaymentCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@OrderId", orderId);
                        insertPaymentCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@PaymentDate", DateTime.Now);
                        insertPaymentCmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@Amount", totalAmount);

                        await insertPaymentCmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();
                        Console.WriteLine("Payment Processed and Inserted into the Payment Table");

                        // Commit Transaction
                        await transaction.CommitAsync();
                        Console.WriteLine("Order Processed Successfully.");
                    }
                    catch (Exception ex)
                    {
                        //Rollback the Transaction
                        await transaction.RollbackAsync();
                        Console.WriteLine($"Transaction Rollback, Exception Message: {ex.Message}");
                    }
                }
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                Console.WriteLine($"Something went wrong: {ex.Message}");
            }
        }
    }
}

Now, run the application, and you should get the output as expected.

Benefits of Using Asynchronous Methods:
  • Improved Scalability: By freeing up the thread while waiting for database operations to complete, the application can handle more operations concurrently.
  • Better Responsiveness: In UI applications, asynchronous database operations prevent the UI from freezing during database access.
  • Efficient Resource Use: Asynchronous programming allows for more efficient use of server resources, particularly in web applications where threads are freed up to handle other requests while waiting for I/O operations to complete.
When Should We Use Transactions in ADO.NET Core?

Using transactions in ADO.NET Core is crucial when you need to ensure the integrity and consistency of your data across multiple operations. Here are specific scenarios and considerations for using transactions in ADO.NET Core:

  • Multiple Related Operations: Use transactions when you perform a series of related database operations that must either all succeed, or all fail as a unit. This is essential for maintaining database consistency. For example, in a banking application, transferring money from one account to another involves debiting one account and crediting another. Both operations should be completed successfully, or none should take effect.
  • Batch Updates: When executing batch updates or inserts, transactions ensure that either all changes are committed to the database or none, preventing partial updates that could lead to data inconsistency.
  • Error Handling: Transactions are helpful for handling errors in database operations. If an error occurs during one of the operations within a transaction, you can roll back the entire transaction, reverting the database to its previous state before the transaction started.
  • Concurrency Control: In scenarios where multiple users or processes might be modifying the database concurrently, transactions help manage concurrency. They ensure that operations are executed with a consistent view of the data, preventing issues like dirty reads, non-repeatable reads, and phantom reads, depending on the isolation level.
  • Distributed Transactions: If your application needs to perform operations that span multiple databases, services, or resource managers, you might need to use distributed transactions. ADO.NET Core supports this through mechanisms like the TransactionScope class, which can automatically escalate to a distributed transaction when necessary.
Disadvantages of ADO.NET Core Transaction
  • Performance Overhead: Transactions can introduce performance overhead. The locking of resources, logging of transaction information, and the management of transaction states can slow down operations, especially in high-volume or real-time systems.
  • Lock Contention: Transactions can lead to lock contention when multiple transactions try to access the same resources simultaneously. This can significantly slow down processing and lead to deadlocks, where two or more transactions are waiting indefinitely for each other to release locks.
  • Complexity: Implementing transactions, mainly distributed transactions across multiple databases or services, can increase the complexity of the application. Managing transaction scopes, handling commit and rollback scenarios, and ensuring data consistency across services require careful design and testing.
  • Resource Utilization: Transactions can increase resource utilization on the database server, including CPU, memory, and disk I/O. This is due to the need to manage transaction logs, maintain isolation levels, and handle locks.

In the next article, I will discuss ADO.NET Core Transaction Isolation Level with Examples. In this article, I explain How to Implement Transactions in ADO.NET Core with Examples. I would like to have your feedback. Please post your feedback, questions, or comments about this How to Implement Transactions in ADO.NET Core with Examples article.

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