Spring Framework Constructor Autowiring

Spring Framework Constructor Autowiring

In this article, I am going to discuss Spring Framework Constructor Autowiring with Examples. Please read our previous article, where we discussed Spring Framework Autowiring by Type.

What is Constructor Autowiring in Spring Framework?

Constructor Autowiring in Spring Framework is a form of dependency injection where the dependencies are automatically resolved and injected through a constructor. When constructor Autowiring is enabled, Spring analyzes the constructor parameters of a bean and tries to match them with available beans in the application context. It then automatically injects the dependencies when creating the bean instance.

Constructor Autowiring promotes explicit declaration of dependencies and helps ensure that the required dependencies are satisfied during object creation. It provides compile-time safety and makes the code more readable and self-explanatory.

By using Constructor Autowiring, you can achieve immutability as dependencies can be provided through the constructor and set once during instantiation. It also simplifies unit testing by allowing easy injection of mock dependencies during testing.

However, Constructor Autowiring can become complex and verbose when dealing with beans with multiple dependencies or circular dependencies. It requires careful ordering of constructor parameters and may lead to less flexibility compared to other forms of Autowiring.

Overall, constructor Autowiring in Spring offers a way to automatically inject dependencies through a constructor, promoting explicit dependency declaration and enhancing testability. It’s a powerful mechanism for achieving dependency injection and can be an effective choice depending on the complexity and requirements of your application.

Implementing Constructor Autowiring in Spring Framework

Before starting the project, ensure that the required JAR files are in the project’s “Referenced Libraries” folder.

Implementing Constructor Autowiring in Spring Framework

In this article, we will be building upon the project from the previous article. The files and their contents should be as follows:


Modify Kettle.java to add a constructor as follows

public class Kettle
    private Drink drink;

    public Kettle (Drink drink)
    {this.drink = drink;}

    public void pour()
    {System.out.println("Pouring " + drink.getName() + " into cups.");}

    public void setDrink(Drink drink)
        System.out.println("Pouring drink into kettle: " + drink.getName());
        this.drink = drink;

This class represents a POJO class which will be used to represent a kettle.

public class Drink
    private String name;

    public String getName() {
        return name;

    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;

This class represents a POJO class which will be used to represent a drink. Note that the setters and getters can be automatically added using the “Source Action…” option in the right-click menu of VS Code.

import org.springframework.context.ApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.context.support.ClassPathXmlApplicationContext;

public class App
    public static void main(String[] args)
        ApplicationContext context = new ClassPathXmlApplicationContext("Beans.xml");
        Kettle k = (Kettle) context.getBean("kettle");

The main function creates a student object and a grade object from the beans.xml file. It then prints out the objects to the terminal.

<?xml version = "1.0" encoding = "UTF-8"?>

<beans xmlns = "http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
   xmlns:xsi = "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
   xsi:schemaLocation = "http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans

   <bean id = "kettle" class = "Kettle" autowire = "constructor"/>
   <bean id = "drink" class = "Drink">
     <property name = "name" value = "tea" />


We have changed the Autowire Type to use Constructor Autowiring instead of by type.

Compile and execute the application. Ensure compilation is successful. Ensure that the output is as expected:

Spring Framework Constructor Autowiring with Examples

Congratulations! You have completed the constructor Autowiring application in Spring Framework!

Benefits of Constructor Autowiring in Spring Framework:
  • Explicit Dependency Declaration: Constructor Autowiring promotes explicit dependency declaration. By listing the dependencies as constructor parameters, it becomes clear what dependencies a class requires for proper instantiation.
  • Compile-Time Safety: Constructor Autowiring provides compile-time safety. If a required dependency is missing or cannot be resolved, the application fails to compile, indicating the issue early in the development process.
  • Immutable Dependencies: Constructor Autowiring is particularly useful for injecting immutable dependencies. Since constructor parameters are typically assigned to final fields, it ensures that the dependencies are set during object creation and cannot be modified later.
  • Testability: Constructor Autowiring facilitates unit testing. By explicitly passing the dependencies through the constructor, it becomes easier to create and inject mock or stub objects during testing, enabling isolated and controlled testing scenarios.
Limitations of Constructor Autowiring in Spring Framework:
  • Verbose Configuration: Constructor Autowiring may lead to verbose configuration, especially when dealing with classes with many dependencies. In such cases, the constructor signature becomes lengthy, making the configuration code less readable.
  • Order of Constructor Parameters: The order of constructor parameters plays a crucial role in constructor Autowiring. If the order is incorrect or inconsistent with the bean definitions, the wrong dependencies can be injected, leading to runtime errors.
  • Ambiguity with Multiple Beans: Just like other Autowiring modes, Constructor Autowiring can face ambiguity when multiple beans of the same type exist in the application context. In such scenarios, Spring throws an exception, and you need to use @Qualifier annotations or other means to resolve the ambiguity.
  • Limited Flexibility: Constructor Autowiring offers less flexibility compared to other Autowiring modes. The constructor parameters must exactly match the types of beans, and there is limited control over the wiring process.

Constructor Autowiring in Spring promotes explicit and safe dependency declaration by matching constructor parameters with beans in the application context. It provides compile-time safety, supports immutable dependencies, and enhances testability. However, it may result in verbose configuration, requires careful ordering of constructor parameters, and can face ambiguity with multiple beans. Consider these factors when deciding to use Constructor Autowiring in your Spring applications.

In the next article, I am going to discuss Spring Framework Annotations Autowiring. Here, in this article, I try to explain Spring Framework Constructor Autowiring with Examples. I hope you enjoy this Spring Framework Constructor Autowiring article.

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